Methionine is one of the materials for protein synthesis. This study investigates the effects of dietary methionine deficiency followed by replenishment on growth performance and carcass characteristics of lambs. The results show that dietary methionine deficiency in early life retarded the growth and development of lambs. However, the growth rate was not retarded during the 28 days of subsequent methionine replenishment stage.
When synthesizing a protein, DNA is transcribed into mRNA which is then translated into a protein. One difference between eukaryotic and prokaryotic genes is that eukaryotic genes often contain introns which are not coding sequences, in contrast with exons, which are DNA coding sequences. During transcription, intronic RNA is excised from the RNA primary transcript and the remaining pieces of the RNA primary transcript are spliced back together resulting in processed mRNA. The mRNA code is then translated into an amino acid chain that comprises the newly made protein.
Using reverse transcriptase polymerases, DNA can be synthesised from mRNA and total RNA. Thus it is a 'complementary' copy of the mRNA, and is thus called complementary DNA (cDNA). cDNA forms the substrate for the majority of qPCR gene expression experiments.
AFP, alpha foetoprotein (French : AFP, alphafoetoprotéine) Specific foetoglobulin synthesized by the liver and secreted in foetal serum during the foetal life and the neonatal period. An open spinal defect in the fetus is usually accompaniedby an increase in AFP in the amniotic fluid and a transudation towards the maternal circulation. AFP measurements in amniotic fluid and maternal serum are used in prenatal diagnosis of genetic diseases.
Human erythrocytes discard their nucleus during maturation, and are thought not to be able to synthesise proteins. Research in this field can be divided into the following: (I) gene expression analysis of erythropoietic progenitor cells; (II) biochemical characterization of nucleotide and protein synthesis during the life cycle of nucleated erythrocytes in vertebrates; (III) molecular aspects of malaria pathogenesis during RBC development; (IV) and genomic and proteomic analysis of gene expression in normal adult human erythrocytes.
For the first time we report about the presence of genes in human RBCs encoding initiation, activation and regulation of transcription and translation (for instance RNA polymerises I,II,III, zinc/PHD finger- DNA-binding proteins, cysteinyl, lysyl-tRNA synthetase), important RNA-stabilising factor - poly(A) binding protein, anti-apoptotic proteins (for instance beclin 1, reticulon 4, BCL2, IAP) together with genes for RNA degradation (for example ribonuclease T2) as well as genes encoding typical apoptotic proteins such as cyclooxygenase, apoptotic protease activating factor, caspase 8. Other authors were able to show a protein synthesis in human platelets by megakaryocyte-derived mRNAs . The finding of RNA in anucleate cells like erythrocytes support the idea of nucleus independent protein synthesis and supports data about possible mechanism of globin m-RNA stability in human RBCs.
Total RNA-Seq differs from other transcriptome sequencing strategies as the method allows for sequencing of both coding and non-coding RNA. Rather than undergoing polyA+ selection that targets the mRNA species, the whole RNA is often subjected to rRNA depletion instead. As rRNA makes up a large percentage of the entire RNA, reduction of rRNA helps allocate more sequencing reads to transcripts of interest. cDNA is synthesised from the rest of the rRNA depleted RNA. Optionally, strand-specific information during downstream processing can be provided. The cDNA is then treated as in all other RNA-Seq workflows.
(French : code génétique) The sequence of nucleotides, coded in triplets (codons) along the mRNA, that determines the sequence of amino acids in protein synthesis. The DNA sequence of a gene can be used to predict the mRNA sequence, and the genetic code can in turn be used to predict the amino acid sequence.
(French : codon nonsens) Codon that does not specify an amino acid but indicates the termination of a polypeptide chain. These codons interrupt the reading of the messenger RNA (mRNA) strand and also cause release of the synthesised polypeptide chain.
(French : S phase) Interphase which usually lasts much longer than mitosis is itself divided into stages. Of the interphasic stages, Gap 1 (G1) which lies between the end of telophase and the beginning of the Synthesis (S) periods is the longest; DNA synthesis takes place during the S period.
Sequence untranslated (French : séquence non traduite) A region of mRNA that is not used in the synthesis of an amino acids sequence of a given peptide or protein. They usually appear at either end of the sequence that codes for the amino acid sequence.
(French : ARN de transfert, ARNt) A class of RNA having structures with triplet nucleotide sequences that are complementary to the triplet nucleotide coding sequences of mRNA. The role of tRNAs in protein synthesis is to bond with amino acids and transfer them to the ribosomes, where proteins are assembled according to the genetic code carried by mRNA.
Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids are considered to be nutritionally essential but cannot be synthesised by humans and animals. The balance of these two fatty acids is important for health and longevity rather than the absolute amount, therefore this study focused on evaluating the dietary supplementation of varying ratios of omega-6 : omega-3 fatty acids (15 : 1, 10 : 1 and 5 : 1) on the performance, nutrient digestibility, immune status and faecal microbiota of weaner pigs. As a result of this study, the reduction of the omega-6 : omega-3 fatty acid ratio from 15 : 1 to 5 : 1 in the diet showed a positive effect on the growth performance of pigs during phases 1 and 2; dry matter, nitrogen and energy digestibility and HDL cholesterol concentration increased linearly during week 3 but no effect on faecal microbiota were observed with the reduction of the omega-6 : omega-3 FA ratio from 15 : 1 to 5 : 1, indicating that the ratio of 5 : 1 is beneficial to weaner pigs.