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nucleic acids & protein synthesis notes b1 - Biology …


Gannon and Nuttall4 report that in 1915, Janney calculated that ~3.5 g glucose could be produced for every gram of nitrogen excreted in the urine as the result of a beef protein meal.

You do this by drinking a mixture of simple carbs and protein, about 40 grams protein to 40-60 grams carbs. You want to get nutrients in the bloodstream as fast as possible after your workout and take advantage of the anabolic actions of insulin at the most critical time, this also starts the recovery and growth process. But in the morning, you are also at a critical time as far as nutrient needs are concerned because you have just come off a short fast while you slept and research shows this creates an anabolic window – take advantage of this by triggering an insulin spike. By keeping all your other meals high in protein and mixed with complex carbs, you can keep insulin spikes under control during the rest of the day.

Beef protein is 16% nitrogen; thus, 1 g of nitrogen is excreted for every 6.25 g protein.

All about protein: What is it and how much do you need?

The excess protein also has the potential to cause the body to lose what little calcium is ingested.



are an organism that requires organic substrates to get its carbon for growth and development. Some are strictly aerobic, but many are facultative anaerobes (they can survive in either the presence or absence of oxygen).
Heterotrophic Bacteria are generally found in most over the counter aquarium cycling products (especially "Sludge Removers") due to their portability and quick activity.
Heterotrophs can be either gram-positive (ex: Bacillus) or gram-negative (ex: Pseudomonas) which in the case of Pseudomonas many gram negative aquarium treatments (such as Kanamycin) can be effective against Pseudomonas while not harming true Autotrophic nitrifying bacteria.

Another point is growth (which is why Heterotrophic bacteria are favored for cycling products); nitrifying (Autotrophic) bacteria will double in population every 15-24 hours under optimal growth conditions. Heterotrophic bacteria, on the other hand, can reproduce in as little as 15 minutes to 1 hour.
Unfortunately research has shown that up to one million times more of these heterotrophic bacteria are required to perform a comparable level of ammonia conversion that is attained by true autotrophic nitrifying bacteria, in part due to the fact of Heterotrophic Bacteria to convert many organics into food.

The use of Heterotrophic Bacteria to cycle an aquarium (or pond) can result in a bio environment that does not contain the necessary Autotrophic nitrifying bacteria to rapidly adapt to changes in bio load either from added fish, wastes, or similar; thus often resulting in sudden spikes in ammonia or nitrites when these Heterotrophic bacteria cycling products are not added in a timely or regular schedule!The other danger is cloudy water.

For this reason products that contain only Heterotrophic Bacteria such as "Hagen Cycle" or even the popular Eco-Complete planted substrate SHOULD BE AVOIDED in some aquariums!

Low pH and Nitrification ;

Nitrification involving AOB & NOB bacteria is different at pH levels of above 7.0 versus below 6.0.

Toxic Ammonia (NH3) changes to ammonium under 6.0 and ammonium (non toxic NH4) switches back to toxic NH3 over 7.0
until the nitrification process re-establishes itself at the higher pH

The cause of this change in the nitrification process is still not clearly understood.
From:


From the above article and quote, I would postulate that a change in Heterotrophic bacteria along with possible Redox Reactions or lack there of (a low pH below 6.0 is very oxidizing with little/no reduction which for this reason alone is not a healthy environment.
As well, Autotrophic bacterial adaptations may be part of this process and why there is an interruption in nitrification from changes in pH and between NH3 & NH4.
Since typical real world aquarium environments invariably are going to contain Heterotrophic bacteria (from fish food waste, etc.) and these tests seemed to lock out these Heterotrophic bacteria (using only ammonium chloride), this bacterium might be part of the cause.


During the nitrification process carbonates are used by the aquarium or pond to counter acids produced during nitrification (or other organic breakdown), however without an adequate KH (even for Amazon River Fish such as Discus or German Rams), subtle or even sudden changes in pH can occur that affects the nitrogen cycle
References:


Keeping a low pH/KH can be a double edged sword where by a simple procedure such as a water change with slightly higher pH water can result in an immediate conversion of ammonium (NH4) to deadly ammonia (NH3) with disastrous results.
This low pH, poor nitrifying environment also easily allows for the growth of pathogenic Fungi/Saprolegnia and a depressed Redox balance.

See References:

3. Insulin being a hormone primarily tied into blood glucose levels, can cause our body to store fat if you have constant spikes all day – that’s why watching your simple carb intake is a good idea as eating to many simple carbs in the absence of complex carbs and/or protein causes insulin surges. It also causes amino acids and creatine to be stored – this promotes protein synthesis. To get the anabolic actions with out the fat storage, you want to cause an insulin spike at two key times of the day – first thing in the morning when you first wake up and after your work out .

Positive Nitrogen Balance, Hormone Manipulation and Recovery

Denitrification is the process by which microorganisms convert nitrate (NO3) to nitrogen gas (N2). In terms of the global nitrogen cycle, denitrification serves to balance nitrogen fixation by removing fixed nitrogen (rather than supplying it) to the biosphere.
Most denitrifying bacteria are heterotrophic (such as Paracoccus denitrificans and various pseudomonads), utilizing organic carbon, hydrogen or hydrogen sulfide as electron donor and nitrate as electron acceptor. The electron donor is oxidized (to CO2, water or sulfate) and nitrate is contemporaneously reduced to dinitrogen gas (N2).
Denitrifying bacteria require a source of reductant (energy) and a source of oxidant (nitrate).
Reference:

This process can take place in an environment of very limited oxygen by anaerobic bacteria. This process is more common in Marine aquaria and takes place in fine #00 sand, live rock, or “aquarium mud”.
In freshwater aquariums this process often produces potentially dangerous Hydrogen Sulfide, but by maintaining an oxygen level above 1 ppm, this can be avoided. Plants roots are great for maintaining this balance of oxygen in the gravel for proper Nitrate removal by allowing very small amounts of oxygen into the substrate which promotes nitrogen reduction over sulfur reduction (which occurs in substrate with 0 oxygen).

This all being said, research is conflicted with what’s best for muscle protein synthesis

A common misconception regarding nitrogen balance studies is that muscle hypertrophy is impossible when an individual is in negative nitrogen balance. In fact, muscle growth can occur when protein intake is insufficient by the stealing of amino acids from other organs. However, this process cannot continue indefinitely and a higher protein diet would likely prove superior (Lemon, 1995).

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the importance of being in a positive nitrogen balance, ..


this promotes protein synthesis.

Other shortcomings on nitrogen balance studies for the purpose of assessing resistance trainees have been published. Tarnopolsky, Atkinson et al. commented on an unidentified inherent error in the nitrogen balance method that may lead one to conclude that an excessive protein intake is of ergogenic benefit. Tarnopolsky, Atkinson et al. cite other studies in addition to theirs that point to a discrepancy between nitrogen balance and other measures of whole-body protein synthesis. Thus, they recommend that nitrogen balance be used in conjunction with other techniques.

effect of protein intake on nitrogen balance, ..

Much debate continues in regards to the possible health risks associated with a diet high in protein. Issues such as increased calcium excretion, increased saturated fat consumption, and renal damage are at the forefront of such controversy.

Protein and Nitrogen Balance – THE FIT FACTORY

What is nitrogen and how does it apply to the bodybuilder? According to Tabors Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary, nitrogen is “one of the important elements in all proteins, nitrogen is essential for tissue building.” More important, perhaps, to bodybuilders is that nitrogen is a direct measurement of protein levels in the body.

Protein and Nitrogen Balance ..

For the most part, we are told to eat sufficient protein to maintain a positive nitrogen balance because your body is actually in an anabolic, or building up phase in this state, where a negative nitrogen balance, from lack of adequate protein, indicates a catabolic, or tearing down state. This is why protein ( and eating enough through out the day) is so important: lack of adequate protein, and your begins to break down tissue (read: muscle) to meet it’s daily protein needs. Our bodies constantly assemble, break down and use proteins (in the form of amino acids, the building blocks of protein), in fact there are literally thousands of different protein combinations used by the body, each one has a specific function determined by it’s combination ( or amino acid sequence).

a high-protein diet will increase overall levels of urea synthesis

Glutamate and aspartate function as excitatory neurotransmitters in the central nervous system, and glutamate is partly responsible for the flavour of food. (It is the mono sodium glutamate listed on processed food labels.) However, glutamate also occupies a special position in amino acid breakdown, and most of the nitrogen from dietary protein is ultimately excreted from the body via the glutamate pool.

Cumulative Muscle Protein Synthesis and Protein …

I can think back to the 80’s and early 90’s, and the advice then was to take 3-4 amino acid tablets, and 3-4 liver tablets anywhere from once every hour to once every three hours. Back then, the recommended intake for bodybuilders was much less than what has currently been recommended ( 1 gram per 2.2 lbs. of body weight), so it’s harder now to meet protein needs because the current suggestion is 1 to 1.5 grams per lb. of body weight, at least. So protein timing/intake becomes critical. Besides taking in high quality protein from food (lean beef, chicken, turkey, fish, eggs),the best way to keep your protein intake at the proper levels are through the use of protein shakes. Whey protein remains number one, because of it’s high quality, but milk based proteins are making a comeback, largely because of their longer lasting effects in the body: whey is typically touted as a fast digesting protein, milk as a slow digesting protein. The other part of getting the most out of your protein intake and thereby maintaining a positive nitrogen balance is carb and fat intake, both are needed in reasonable amounts to insure protein synthesis.

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