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Null and Alternative Hypothesis | Real Statistics Using …

Step 4: We compare the p-value to alpha, which we will let alpha be 0.05. Since 0.0044 is less than 0.05 we will reject the null hypothesis and decide in favor of the alternative, Ha.

Before actually conducting a hypothesis test, you have to put two possible hypotheses on the table — the null hypothesis is one of them. But, if the null hypothesis is rejected (that is, there was sufficient evidence against it), what’s your alternative going to be? Actually, three possibilities exist for the second (or alternative) hypothesis, denoted Ha. Here they are, along with their shorthand notations in the context of the pie example:

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When you set up a hypothesis test to determine the validity of a statistical claim, you need to define both a null hypothesis and an alternative hypothesis.

When you set up a hypothesis test to determine the validity of a statistical claim, you need to define both a null hypothesis and an alternative hypothesis.

Note: In computing the Z-test statistic for a proportion we use the hypothesized value po here not the sample proportion p-hat in calculating the standard error! We do this because we "believe" the null hypothesis to be true until evidence says otherwise.

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Every hypothesis test contains a set of two opposing statements, or hypotheses, about a population parameter. The first hypothesis is called the denoted H0. The null hypothesis always states that the population parameter is to the claimed value. For example, if the claim is that the average time to make a name-brand ready-mix pie is five minutes, the statistical shorthand notation for the null hypothesis in this case would be as follows:

21/12/2017 · View Notes - Lecture 26 Test of Hypothesis_Ideas, language, Notations from ECON eco 329 at University of Texas. Tests of …

The "Z-value" (-2.62) is the test statistic. It is a standardized score for the difference between the sample p and the null hypothesis value p = .40. The p-value is the probability that the z-score would lean toward the alternative hypothesis as much as it does if the true population really was p = .40.

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Chapter 8 — Central Intelligence Agency


Sum and Product Notation | Real Statistics Using Excel

The "Z-value" (-2.62) is the test statistic. It is a standardized score for the difference between the sample p and the null hypothesis value p = .40. The p-value is the probability that the z-score would lean toward the alternative hypothesis as much as it does if the true population really was p = .40.

Examples of sum and product notation

A small p-value favors the alternative hypothesis. A small p-value means the observed data would not be very likely to occur if we believe the null hypothesis is true. So we believe in our data and disbelieve the null hypothesis. An easy (hopefully!)way to grasp this is to consider the situation where a professor states that you are just a 70% student. You doubt this statement and want to show that you are better that a 70% student. If you took a random sample of 10 of your previous exams and calculated the mean percentage of these 10 tests, which mean wouldbe less likely to occur if in fact you were a 70% student (the null hypothesis): a sample mean of 72% or one of 90%? Obviously the 90% would be less likely and therefore would have a small probability (i.e. p-value).

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How do you know which hypothesis to put in H0 and which one to put in Ha? Typically, the null hypothesis says that nothing new is happening; the previous result is the same now as it was before, or the groups have the same average (their difference is equal to zero). In general, you assume that people’s claims are true until proven otherwise. So the question becomes: Can you prove otherwise? In other words, can you show sufficient evidence to reject H0?

19th Century Mathematics - The Story of Mathematics

NOTATION: The notation Ho represents a null hypothesis and Ha represents an alternative hypothesis and po is read as p-not or p-zero and represents the null hypothesized value. Shortly, we will substitute μo for when discussing a test of means.

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Generally, this failure to see that one could name numerical variables is sort of an interesting case of the language or notation one uses preventing a certain kind of thinking. That's something that's certainly discussed in ordinary linguistics. In its popular versions, it's often called the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis.

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