Pathophysiology of common diseases; Basic Principles of Cell Injury and Adaptations: Causes of Cellular injury, pathogenesis, morphology of cell injury, adaptations and cell death. Basic Mechanisms involved in the process of inflammation and repair: Vascular and cellular events of acute inflammation, chemical mediators of inflammation, pathogenesis of chronic inflammation, brief outline of the process of repair. Immunopathophysiology: T and B cells, MHC proteins, antigen presenting cells, immune tolerance, pathogenesis of hypersensitivity reactions, autoimmune diseases, AIDS, Amyloidosis. Pathophysiology of Common Diseases: Asthma, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, gout, ulcerative colitis, neoplasia, psychosis, depression, mania, epilepsy, acute and chronic renal failure, hypertension, angina, congestive heart failure, atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, peptic ulcer, anemias, hepatic disorders, tuberculosis, urinary tract infections and sexually transmitted diseases. Wherever applicable the molecular basis should be discussed.
Fundamentals of general pharmacology: Dosage forms and routes of administration, mechanism of action, combined effect of drugs, factors modifying drug action, tolerance and dependence; Pharmacogenetics; Principles of Basic and Clinical pharmacokinetics, absorption, Distribution, Metabolism and Excretion of drugs, Adverse Drug Reactions; Bioassay of Drugs and Biological Standardization; Discovery and development of new drugs, Bioavailability and bioequivalence studies; Pharmacology of Peripheral Nervous System: Neurohumoral transmission (autonomic and somatic), Parasympathomimetics, Parasympatholytics, Sympathomimetics, Adrenergic receptor and neuron blocking agents, Ganglion stimulants and blocking agents, Neuromuscular blocking Agents, Local anesthetic Agents.
Pharmacology of Central Nervous System: Neurohumoral transmission in the C.N.S., General Anesthetics, Alcohols and disulfiram, Sedatives, Hypnotics, Anti-anxiety agents and Centrally acting muscle relaxants, Psychopharmacological agents (anti-psychotics), anti-maniacs and hallucinogens, Antidepressants, Anti-epileptics drugs, Anti-Parkinsonian drugs, Analgesics, Antipyretics, Narcotic analgesics and antagonists, C.N.S. stimulants, Drug Addiction and Drug Abuse.
Pharmacology of Cardiovascular System: Drugs used in the management of congestive cardiac failure, Antihypertensive drugs, Anti-anginal and Vasodilator drugs, including calcium channel blockers and beta adrenergic antagonists, Anti-arrhythmic drugs, Anti-hyperlipedemic drugs, Drugs used in the therapy of shock.
Drugs Acting on the Hemopoietic System: Hematinics, Anticoagulants, Vitamin K and hemostatic agents, Fibrinolytic and anti-platelet drugs, Blood and plasma volume expanders.
Drugs acting on urinary system: Fluid and electrolyte balance, Diuretics. Autacoids: Histamine, Antihistaminic drugs, 5-HT- its agonists and antagonists, Prostaglandins, thromboxanes and leukotrienes, Angiotensin, Bradykinin and Substance P and other vasoactive peptides, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and anti-gout agents.
Drugs Acting on the Respiratory System: Anti-asthmatic drugs including bronchodilators, Anti-tussives and expectorants, Respiratory stimulants.
Drugs acting on the Gastrointestinal Tract: Antacids, Anti-secretory and Anti-ulcer drugs, Laxatives and anti-diarrhoeal drugs, Appetite Stimulants and Suppressants, Emetics and anti-emetics, Miscellaneous: Carminatives, demulcents, protectives, adsorbents, astringents, digestants, enzymes and mucolytics.
Pharmacology of Endocrine System: Hypothalamic and pituitary hormones, Thyroid hormones and anti thyroid drugs, parathormone, calcitonin and Vitamin D, Insulin, glucagons, incretins, oral hypoglycemic agents and insulin analogs, ACTH and corticosteroids, Androgens and anabolic steroids, Estrogens, progesterone and oral contraceptives,
Drugs acting on the uterus & Chemotherapy: General Principles of Chemotherapy, Bacterial resistance; Sulfonamides and cotrimoxazole, Antibiotics- Penicillins, Cephalosporins, Aminoglycosides, Chloramphenicol, Macrolides, Tetracyclines, Quinolones, fluoroquinolones and Miscellaneous antibiotics; Chemotherapy of tuberculosis, leprosy, fungal diseases, viral diseases, HIV and AIDS, urinary tract infections and sexually transmitted diseases, malaria, amoebiasis and other protozoal infections and Anthelmentics. Chemotherapy of malignancy and immunosuppressive agents. Principles of Toxicology: Definition of poison, general principles of treatment of poisoning with particular reference to barbiturates, opioids, organophosphorous and atropine poisoning, Heavy metals and heavy metal antagonists.
Basic Concepts of Pharmacotherapy: Clinical Pharmacokinetics and individualization of Drug therapy, Drug delivery systems and their Biopharmaceutic & Therapeutic considerations, Drugs used during infancy and in the elderly persons (Pediatrics & Geriatrics), Drugs used during pregnancy, Drug induced diseases, The basics of drug interactions, General principles of clinical toxicology, Common clinical laboratory tests and their interpretation; Important Disorders of Organs, Systems and their Management: Cardio-vascular disorders- Hypertension, Congestive heart failure, Angina, Acute myocardial infarction, Cardiac arrhythmias. CNS Disorders: Epilepsy, Parkinsonism, Schizophrenia, Depression Respiratory disease-Asthma. Gastrointestinal Disorders- Peptic ulcer, Ulcerative colitis, Hepatitis, Cirrhosis. Endocrine Disorders- Diabetes mellitus and Thyroid disorders. Infectious Diseases- Tuberculosis, Urinary tract infections, Enteric infections, Upper respiratory infections. Hematopoietic Disorders- Anemias, Joint and Connective tissue disorders- Rheumatic diseases, Gout and Hyperuricemia. Neoplastic Diseases- Acute Leukaemias, Hodgkin’s disease. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring, Concept of Essential Drugs and Rational Drug use.
Because of nylon’s versatility, it is one of the most widely used engineering thermoplastics. Commercially available nylons include nylon 6, nylon 4/6, nylon 6/6, nylon 6/10, nylon 6/12, nylon 11 and nylon 12. The numerical nomenclature for nylon is derived from the number of carbon atoms in the diamine and dibasic acid monomers used to manufacture it. The ratio of carbon atoms is what gives each nylon type its unique property characteristics.
All nylons can be reinforced with glass fibers, glass beads, and carbon fibers to improve their mechanical and thermal performance. Filled materials containing PTFE and molybdenum disulphide are available for bearing materials with appropriately low friction and improved wear. Nylon 6 is used in applications where toughness, lubricity, and wear are important, such as gear wheels.
Nylon 6 is a tough, abrasion-resistant material. It has improved surface appearance and processability compared to nylon 6/6. It also can be molded about 80 degrees F (27 degrees C) lower with less mold shrinkage because it is slightly less crystalline. Adversely, nylon 6 has a lower modulus and absorbs moisture more rapidly than nylon 6/6. Moisture acts as a plasticizer, reducing tensile strength and stiffness and increasing elongation. But, while absorbed moisture reduces many properties, nylon owes part of its toughness to the plasticizing effect of moisture. As moisture content rises, significant increases occur in impact strength and general energy absorbing characteristics. Properly recognized and accounted for, the effect of moisture on the processing and properties of nylon need not be of great concern.
If you imagine that the polymers in the simulation are polyamides (like nylon-6,6), then the monomer has one carboxylic acid group and one alcohol group (picture the dimer you saw in Example 1 in the previous section).
In the industrial process, naphtha vapour is passed over reaction mechanism for synthesis of nylon 6 6 platinum and rhenium (.3 each) which are finely dispersed over aluminium oxide. FriedelCrafts acylation reactions are also important steps in synthesis. It must also be long lasting. Chemists have now developed alternative chlorine-free compounds. Figure 13 Part of a mechanism for the formation of 2,4,4-trimethyl-2-pentene from 2-methylpropene. To read more about how we measure the viscosity average molecular weight, go read the dilute solution viscometry page. MS.2 Students could be given the structure of one isomer and asked to draw further isomers. Distribution With all these different molecular weights out there, things can get a little confusing. In the mechanism for this reaction a hydrogen ion is added at the start, and lost at the end.
Plastics make up a major category of the polymer field. The world plastics market was about 622 billion pounds in the year 2014. The plastics industry is the third largest manufacturing industry in the United States. In 2014, more than $427 billion in plastic goods were shipped. Most of these materials are a synthetic commodity and engineering resins and the major types are listed below. From Nylon 6/6 testing, to ABS and PET testing, Polyhedron has the capbilities to peform thousands of plastics tests. Polyhedron Laboratores has been performing an extensive number of tests for over 40 years.