A simple hypothesis is a prediction of the relationship between two variables: the independent variable and the dependent variable.
I contend that thedetailed & powerful predictability associated with standard theory far outclassesthe prose-based sentimental approach of the electric-sun hypothesis.
Such methods might include:If these approaches, however, seem fruitless and you have concluded that you have to gather your data with empirical observation, one of the first questions to resolve is the extent of your empirical material.
CORRECTION: Perhaps because the Scientific Method and popular portrayals of science emphasize , many people think that science can't be done an experiment. In fact, there are ways to test almost any scientific idea; experimentation is only one approach. Some ideas are best tested by setting up a in a lab, some by making detailed observations of the natural world, and some with a combination of strategies. To study detailed examples of how scientific ideas can be tested fairly, with and without experiments, check out our side trip .
: In everyday language, the word usually refers to an educated guess or an idea that we are quite uncertain about. Scientific hypotheses, however, are much more informed than any guess and are usually based on prior experience, scientific background knowledge, preliminary observations, and logic. In addition, hypotheses are often supported by many different lines of evidence in which case, scientists are more confident in them than they would be in any mere "guess." To further complicate matters, science textbooks frequently misuse the term in a slightly different way. They may ask students to make a about the outcome of an experiment (e.g., table salt will dissolve in water more quickly than rock salt will). This is simply a prediction or a guess (even if a well-informed one) about the outcome of an experiment. Scientific hypotheses, on the other hand, have explanatory power they are explanations for phenomena. The idea that table salt dissolves faster than rock salt is not very hypothesis-like because it is not very explanatory. A more scientific (i.e., more explanatory) hypothesis might be "The amount of surface area a substance has affects how quickly it can dissolve. More surface area means a faster rate of dissolution." This hypothesis has some explanatory power it gives us an idea of a particular phenomenon occurs and it is testable because it generates expectations about what we should observe in different situations. If the hypothesis is accurate, then we'd expect that, for example, sugar processed to a powder should dissolve more quickly than granular sugar. Students could examine rates of dissolution of many different substances in powdered, granular, and pellet form to further test the idea. The statement "Table salt will dissolve in water more quickly than rock salt" is not a hypothesis, but an expectation generated by a hypothesis. Textbooks and science labs can lead to confusions about the difference between a hypothesis and an expectation regarding the outcome of a scientific test. To learn more about scientific hypotheses, visit in our section on how science works.
: In everyday language, generally refers to something that a fortune teller makes about the future. In science, the term generally means "what we would expect to happen or what we would expect to observe if this idea were accurate." Sometimes, these scientific predictions have nothing at all to do with the future. For example, scientists have hypothesized that a huge asteroid struck the Earth 4.5 billion years ago, flinging off debris that formed the moon. If this idea were true, we would that the moon today would have a similar composition to that of the Earth's crust 4.5 billion years ago a prediction which does seem to be accurate. This hypothesis deals with the deep history of our solar system and yet it involves predictions in the scientific sense of the word. Ironically, scientific predictions often have to do with past events. In this website, we've tried to reduce confusion by using the words and instead of and . To learn more, visit in our section on the core of science.
An empirical hypothesis, or working hypothesis, comes to life when a theory is being put to the test, using observation and experiment. It's no longer just an idea or notion. It's actually going through some trial and error, and perhaps changing around those independent variables.