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1. each gene encodes one enzyme.

However, for this Epochal Event, unlike the others, we actually have hints of what might lie ahead, and . One set of noteworthy visions comes from Michael Roads's , which is particularly inspiring and enlightening. Roads visited two future human realities, about 300 years into our future. They were on opposite ends of the fear/love spectrum. Both were technologically advanced compared to today and both had genetic engineering, but the made Los Angeles seem like , while a Disney movie could not begin to depict the . Visions such as those make it clear to me that our future will be what make it. What we choose to do, , determines what our tomorrow looks like. The fear-based world that Roads visited was filled with victims, from top to bottom. Those in that heavenly world all acted like true creators, and creators create with love. , and learning that lesson be the reason why we are here, playing this life-on-Earth game.

, nearly all of it suppressed, that we are not alone in the universe. It is being suppressed for the same reason that FE, antigravity, and myriad other technologies are being suppressed: so that ultra-elites can continue sitting on their perch atop the global economic and political systems. The issues are deeply related, and either situation's overcoming the organized suppression will probably resolve the other almost instantaneously, and they might happen at the same moment. Although the for caution regarding any ET disclosures, the days of a reaction are long gone. Knowing that we are not alone in the universe, and that our journey may have been significantly influenced by ET visitors (such as the velocity of today’s technological revolution, and genetically), will change humanity’s self-image and probably the way that we end up interacting with galactic civilizations, but that will all pale beside the economic and social changes that FE, antigravity, and related technologies will initiate. That is all unexplored territory that I, for one, look forward to venturing into.

2. provided very strong evidence for the one gene:one polypeptidehypothesis.

2. each gene encodes one metabolic pathway.

3. each gene encodes one polypeptide.

Darwin , but believed that natural selection primarily worked at the individual level. The idea of group selection has , if . Anthropologists and biologists see evidence of group selection, not only in social creatures such as , but also in the ability of human societies to survive competition with their neighbors. Hunter-gatherer societies eliminated disruptive members by , which has been argued to have been reflected genetically in eliminating uncooperative people from society. Those kinds of activities may have helped cull the human herd of “uncooperative” genes. When Europe conquered the world, it had the highest energy usage, by far, of any peoples on Earth, which was why it always prevailed. When high-energy societies met low-energy societies, the results were almost always catastrophic for low-energy societies. Hunter-gatherer societies have no chance in a competition with societies possessing domesticated plants and animals, much less industrialized societies. Whether they are species or human civilizations, the determines their viability.

In other words, the motivation was primarily economic, usually after depleting the energy resources of the lands that they migrated from, whether they were megafauna, forests, or soils. After the Neolithic Expansion, migrations that displaced the natives seem rare, at least until . That is the general pattern that I have noticed, but as I write this. During , in which about the only immigrants were European men with dreams of riches or captured African men who looked forward to short lives of slavery, the surviving native women became concubines for the invaders and native male DNA vanished from the genome. Recent research regarding Puerto Rico showed a .

for his “heresies” in Protestant Geneva

In the Fertile Crescent today, the ruins of hundreds of early cities are in their self-made deserts, usually buried under the silt of the erosion of exposed forest soils. As the Mediterranean Sea’s periphery became civilized, the same pattern was repeated; forests became semi-deserts and early cities were buried under silt. Before the rise of civilization, a forest ran from Morocco to Afghanistan, and only about 10% of the forest that still existed as late as 2000 BCE still remains. Everyplace that civilization exists today has been dramatically deforested. Humanity has since agriculture began. The only partial exceptions are places such as Japan, but they regenerated their forests by importing wood from foreign forests. North America and Asia have been supplying Japan with wood for generations. As civilizations wiped themselves out with their rapaciousness, some people were aware enough to lament what was happening, but they were a small minority. Usually lost in the anthropocentric view was the awesome devastation inflicted on other life forms. was only a prelude. Razing a forest to burn the wood and raise crops destroyed an entire ecosystem for short-term human benefit and left behind a lifeless desert when the last crops were wrenched from depleted soils. In the final accounting, the damage meted out to Earth’s other species, not other humans, may be humanity’s greatest crime. Humanity is the greatest destructive force on Earth since the , and our great task of devastating Earth and her denizens may be .

Their hypothesis was that for each gene there was one enzyme or protein.

Monkeys, apes, and humans have many traits in common, and one is that members of "out-groups" are fair game. Chimpanzees are the only non-human animals today that form ranked hunting parties, and they are also the only ones that form hunting parties to . Distinct from the killer ape hypothesis, which posits that humans are instinctually violent, the chimpanzee violence hypothesis proposes that chimps only engage in warfare when it makes economic sense: when the benefits of eliminating rivals outweigh the risks/costs. Macaque wars and revolutions appear spontaneously, but chimp wars have calculation behind them, which befits a chimp’s advanced cognitive abilities; they plan murderous raids and carry them out. It is quite probable that the advancing toolset of protohumans was used for coalitionary killing when perceived benefits exceeded assessed risks/costs. Just as with , these traits probably also existed in our last common ancestor. Other animals also engage in intra-species violence, which includes spiders when key resources are scarce and contested, and when ant colonies have power imbalances, they can trigger invasion and extermination by the larger colony. But human and chimpanzee warfare is uniquely organized and calculating.

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One gene–one enzyme hypothesis - Wikipedia

One gene, one enzyme (article) | Khan Academy

Studies have shown that humans and chimpanzees have the same basal metabolism, so the first possibility is considered very unlikely in our ancestors, although large brains in general . The subject of reducing energy output has an intriguing hypothesis: bipedal motion allowed humans to move by using less energy than our pre-bipedal ancestors. Human bipedal locomotion requires only a quarter of the energy that chimpanzee locomotion does, and chimps use about a quarter of their metabolism walking, although whether this was a key evolutionary event is controversial. Even though protohumans would have taken advantage of bipedal walking to range farther than chimps (humans can average 11 miles a day, while chimps can only achieve six), thereby using a relatively larger proportion of their energy on locomotion; bipedal locomotion energy savings alone might largely account for the growing brain’s energy needs. was developed to account for the required energy, which proposed that energy to fuel the growing brain came from reducing digestion costs, which was initially provided by eating more meat.

One gene one enzyme hypothesis - YouTube

Scientists today think that above all else, the first stone tools began humanity’s Age of Meat. Meat is a nutrient-dense food and is highly prized among wild chimpanzees that use it as a , and male chimps have used it as payment for sex. The human brain is more than three times the size of a chimpanzee’s, but recent research suggests that the human brain’s size is , and great ape brains seem relatively small because their bodies became relatively large, possibly due to sexual selection that resulted from vying for mates. Humans developed relatively larger brains and relatively smaller and weaker bodies, which was ; something had to give. Protohumans began relying on brains more than brawn. The studies of brain size, encephalization, neocortex function, intelligence, and their relationships are in their infancy. The current . Larger brains were needed for navigating increasing social complexity, and not only the number of individuals in a society, but the sophistication of interactions. It is also argued that smarter brains allowed for greater social complexity, in another possible instance of mutually reinforcing positive feedbacks. Societies can perform tasks that individuals cannot. Those engage in wars and revolutions. They can procure a food source and secure the territory, which creates the energetic means for developing a society. Tool-making may have been a bonus of that enlarged brain needed for social navigation, and walking bipedally coincidentally provided new opportunities for hands. , and all proposed dynamics may have had their influences. , about 10 times the energy needs of equivalent muscle mass, and primates cannot consciously turn their brains off any more than they can turn their livers off. Few studies have been performed on the relationships between energy, brains, and sleep, but a recent one found that sleep seems to be .

George W. Beadle's One Gene-One Enzyme Hypothesis …

Those first stone tools are called pebble tools, and anthropologists have placed the protohumans who made them in the (also called the Oldowan industry, or on the stone tool scale). The rocks used for Oldowan tools were already nearly the shape needed and were made by banging candidate rocks on a rock “anvil,” and the fractured rock’s sharp edge was the tool. Those first stone tool makers were largely still the hunted, not hunters, and stone edges would have been like claws and teeth that would have made scavenging predator kills easy in a way that primates had never before experienced. Modern researchers have used Oldowan tools to quickly butcher elephants. Sawing a limb from a predator kill and stealing it would have been quick and easy. Stone tools also crushed bones to extract marrow, and would have made harvesting and processing plant foods far easier.

8. One gene - One polypeptide (HSC biology) - YouTube

Habilines and australopithecines coexisted, and the went extinct about 2.0 mya. Robust australopiths survived to about 1.2 mya (, ), and habilines , so they overlapped the tenure of a species about which there is no doubt of its genus: , which first appeared about 2.0-1.8 mya, and the first fossils are dated to 1.8 mya. is the first human-line species whose members could pass for humans on a city street, if they dressed up and wore minor prosthetics on their heads and faces. had a protruding nose and was probably relatively hairless, the first of the human line to be that way. That was probably related to shedding heat in new, hot environments, as well as cooling its large brain (molecular data with head and body lice supports arguments that the human line became relatively hairless even before australopiths). There are great controversies about that overlap among those three distinct lines that might all have ancestral relationships. Oldowan culture was a multi-species one. There is plenty of speculation that the rise of and its successors caused the extinction of other hominids, driving them to extinction by competition, predation, warfare, or some combination of them. What is certain is that “competing” protohumans went extinct after coexisting with the human line for hundreds of thousands of years. The suspicion that evolving humans drove their cousins to extinction becomes more common as the timeline progresses toward today.

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