In this way law enforcement comes to be seen as a technique for crime prevention rather than as a vehicle for reacting to crime.
These ideas on how to tackle the crime problem in urban America have been taken up with some success, notably by the New York Transit Authority (for whom Kelling acted as a consultant), who adopted a policy of ‘zero tolerance’ towards graffiti on trains, urinating in public, intimidation of commuters, and such like, and dramatically reduced the incidence of serious crime in New York City subways.
Each IPhOD entry contains an American English phonetic transcription from the Carnegie-Mellon Pronouncing Dictionary (Weide, 1994), and written word frequencies from the SUBTLEXus database (Brysbaert & New, 2009). Neighborhood density and word averaged phoneme-sequence probabilities were extrapolated from those data using the same formulas for words and pseudowords, so that entries of either type could be chosen using identical criteria. IPhOD is calculated broadly, over the entire word set in calculations for phonotactic probability and neighborhood density, after the approach of Vitevitch and Luce (1999).
It is often cited as an example of ideas informing public policy.
In the March1982 issue of the , political scientist James Wilson and criminologist George Kelling published an article under the title ‘Broken Windows’, in which they argued that policing in neighbourhoods should be based on a clear understanding of the connection between order-maintenance and crime prevention.
They used the image of broken windows to explain how neighbourhoods might decay into disorder and crime if no one attends to their maintenance: a broken factory window suggests to passers-by that no one is in charge or cares; in time a few more windows are broken by rock-throwing youths; passers-by begin to think that no one cares about the whole street; soon, only the young and criminals are prepared to use the street; which then attracts prostitution, drug-dealing, and such like; until, in due course, someone is murdered.
The current version (2.0) of the Irvine Phonotactic Online Dictionary (IPhOD) is a collection of phonotactic estimates calculated across a broad sample to enable precise verbal stimuli selection for speech research and application in cognitive science, computational linguistics, and natural language processing. IPhOD contains phonotactic and density estimates, American English transcriptions of 1-28 phonemes, and word frequencies for 54030 word and 814840 pseudoword entries. Pseudowords are defined here as word-like transcriptions consisting entirely of phoneme-pairs from real English words. Pseudowords like these are used in computational psycholinguistics to study non-semantic language processes, since they have little meaning or association but are consistent enough with a language to sound like typical words. The collection is freely available to download or search online.
The Irvine Phonotactic Online Dictionary (IPhOD) is a large collection of English words and pseudowords that was developed at the University of California, Irvine for research on speech perception and production. The collection allows researchers to select words and/or pseudowords for experiments, based on measures related to phonemes (i.e. speech sounds). This database can be used to perform searches, such as whether a word contains relatively frequent or infrequent sound-sequences or which other English words sound similar to it. All of the IPhOD tools on this website are freely available for academic and personal use. There is also an to provide a forum for feedback, questions, and suggestions - or use email to contact: .
Typically these involve some mixture of Neighbourhood Watch programmes, zero tolerance of minor public disorders, a shift towards ‘community-oriented’ (preventive) and away from ‘incident-oriented’ (reactive) policing, police involvement in local youth projects, decentralization of authority to individual police officers, and community involvement in setting priorities for and collaborating with prosecutors, police, probation officers, and other criminal justice officials (see George Kelling and and Catherine Coles , , 1996
Supporters of these strategies argue that they offer an imaginative solution to the competing demands of liberty and in advanced societies; are a necessary corrective to the drift in public policy towards maximizing individual and away from enforcing communal obligations; and provide an effective means of reclaiming public spaces without sacrificing essential freedoms.
The IPhOD database can be downloaded in its entirety (text files) from the . These files can be opened using most available spreadsheet programs, or custom PERL scripts. A second option is to , by entering value ranges or word lists to obtain results. Finally, there is an that produces phonotactic and density values for lists of phonemic transcriptions that are entered by the user. An advantage of the latter two approaches is that you can specify which output fields to include in results, and leave out columns that are not of interest. The online calculator is helpful for generating values for words or pseudowords that are not included in the IPhOD database, and also can list the phonological neighbors of each input transcription.
The IPhOD was developed by Kenny Vaden advised by Greg Hickok in the Department of Cognitive Sciences, UC Irvine. We gratefully acknowledge the contributions of Harry Halpin (Informatics, University of Edinburgh) for the original XML markup and online search functions, as well as the various contributions of Jean-Claude Falmagne, Kai Okada, Yasmine Omidvar and Corica Rodgers (UC Irvine).
Majerus, Steve; Van der Linden, Martial; Mulder, Ludivine; Meulemans, Thierry; and Peters, Frederic 2004. Verbal short-term memory reflects the sublexical organization of the phonological language network. 297-306.
Wilson, M. 1988. MRC Psycholinguistic Database: Machine Readable Dictionary, Version 2. Behavioural Research Methods, Instruments & Computers, 20(1), 6-11.