There is also light-independent photosynthesis, which USES ATP and creates glucose from carbon dioxide and water, producing oxygen as a waste product. This is really an energy storage mechanism, so that the organism doing it can later burn the glucose through glycolysis and respiration. This also happens in chloroplasts, so plants can, and animals can't.
The most important type of chromoplast is the chloroplast,which contains the green pigment chlorophyll. This is important inthe process of photosynthesis.
These organelles are also known to harbor a set of proteins which when released into the cytoplasm lead to activation of the self-destructive processes of a cell.
This process of photosynthesis occurs through a set of light-dependent reactions that take place in the grana, and a set of dark (light-independent) reactions that occur in the stroma.
-light-dependent photosynthesis, in which electrons are cycled around photosynthetic pigments after being jostled around by mid-high-energy photons (light particles), which filter through an electron pump that makes ATP. This happens in chloroplasts, and as such only occurs in plants.
There are 3 main pathways for harvesting energy from glucose:
Glycolysis - begins glucose metabolism in all cells to produce 2 molecules of pyruvate. Occurs outside of mitochondria, usually in cytoplasm.
Now this brings us to the next part - how do we go from glucose to ATP? This is achieved through the process of "oxidation" - and this is carried out through a series of metabolic pathways. Complex chemical transformations in the cell occur in a series of separate reactions to form each pathway, and each reaction is catalyzed by a specific enzyme. Interestingly, metabolic pathways are similar in all organisms, from bacteria to humans. In eukaryotes (plants and animals) many of the metabolic pathways are compartmentalized, with certain reactions occurring in specific organelles. Basically, cells trap free energy released from the breakdown (metabolism) of glucose. This energy gets trapped in the ATP as it converts from ADP to ATP by the addition of phosphate.
The process of photosynthesis is two-part. First, there are the light reactions, where light is converted into chemical energy (a reduced electron carrier and ATP). This occurs in the thylakoids (stacked membranes) of the chloroplasts. The ATP and electron carriers are then used in a second set of reactions, called the light-independent reactions. This also occurs in the chloroplasts, but in an area called the stroma. In this case, carbon dioxide gets used to produce sugars in a series of reactions called the Calvin Cycle, C4 photosynthesis, and crassulacean acid metabolism. You can look in any basic bio textbook to see how much "energy" or "sugar" is produced in each step of the process.
Chloroplasts are the organelles that contain chlorophyll and are responsible for the ability of plants to use sunlight (photosynthesis) to generate energy.
Photosynthetic organisms use energy from sunlight to synthesize their own fuels. They can convert harvested sunlight into chemical energy (including ATP) to then drive the synthesis of carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water. When they synthesize the carbohydrates, oxygen gets released. Globally, more than 10 billion tons of carbon is "fixed" by plants every year - this means that carbon molecules are converted from being part of a simple gas (carbon dioxide) into more complex, reduced molecules (carbohydrates), making carbon available as food for non-photosynthesizers (and of course, providing oxygen). They use some of the carbohydrate for their own growth and reproduction. It is pretty remarkable when you think about it - have you been to Sequoia National Park or seen the redwoods along our northwest coast? Massive trees, right? Think about the fact that most of that mass is in the form of carbon that was pulled out of the air as carbon dioxide!
Nucleus: this contains genetic make (the DNA), which controls the activities of the cell.
Chlorophyll absorbs the light energy needed to make photosynthesis happen. It is important to note that not all the color wavelengths of light are absorbed. Plants mostly absorb red and blue wavelengths — they do not absorb light from the green range.
Thisisbecauseplant cells have a number of organelles that perform functionssuch as storing food, processing waste, fixing and releasingchemical energy, and copying their genetic material.