Prothrombin is also known as factor II of the coagulation factors. It is produced by the liver and requires vitamin K for its synthesis. In liver disease, PT is usually prolonged. The test requires 7 to 10 ml of blood with an anticoagulant in the blood tube. It can be collected in a black-top tube (sodium oxalate in the tube), or blue-top tube (sodium citrate in the tube). The most common is the blue-top tube, the specimen must be tested within 4 hours of collection and is usually packed in ice and delivered to the lab quickly. This is a very common lab test and is usually performed as a routine hospital admission screening test. A high-fat diet may cause decreased PT, and alcohol can cause an increased PT result.
This test is a measure of phase III of the clotting process. The PT may give false readings due to some other clotting defects. However, it is usually indicative of a phase III problem.
This test is very complicated and only a few large laboratories will perform this test. The TGT has the ability to exactly pinpoint the defect in the clotting process. This fact can make the TGT a very valuable test under certain circumstances.
Hodgkin's disease is suspected if there is decreased bleeding time. Prolonged rate may indicate: thrombocytopenic purpura, platelet abnormality, vascular abnormality, leukemia, severe liver disease, DIC disease, aplastic anemia, factor deficiencies (V, VII, XI), Christmas disease, hemophilia. The following drugs can affect bleeding time: aspirin, dextran, mithramycin, coumadin, streptokinase-streptodornase (fibrinolytic agent). Aspirin, alcohol, and also anticoagulants may increase bleeding time.
We evaluated the effect of calcium citrate supplementation alone or in combination with potassium citrate on the stone forming propensity in healthy postmenopausal women.
A test similar to the PT, the PTT is also used to detect clotting abnormalities. APTT, Activated PTT, similar to PTT but is more sensitive than PTT test; it will help to identify the defective factor, if one is defective.
For a child with low calcium intake, a daily calcium supplement dose of 300 mg of calcium carbonate or calcium citrate should be helpful.
Bioavailability of calcium: comparison of calcium carbonate and milk and the effect of vitamin D, age, and sex using 24-hour urine calcium as a method.
Calcif Tissue Int.
They found that the cheese group showed more beneficial effects in their bones than any of the other groups, but when they took into account the individual growth speed, no beneficial effect was found with any of the interventions -- calcium alone, calcium plus vitamin D, or even cheese supplementation.
The ESR is a sensitive, but nonspecific test that is frequently the earliest indicator of disease. It often rises significantly in widespread inflammatory disorders due to infection or autoimmune mechanisms. Such elevations may be prolonged in localized inflammation and malignancies.
The PTT is very similar to the PT. It is used to detect Phase II defects in the clotting process. It will usually detect deficiencies in all clotting factors except factors VII and XIII. It is usually performed for monitoring Heparin therapy. Heparin doses are usually adjusted according to the PTT test results. The PTT is usually more sensitive than the PT test.
Increased Serum Ferritin Levels: may indicate acute or chronic hepatic disease, iron overload, leukemia, acute or chronic infection or inflammation, Hodgkin's Disease, or chronic hemolytic anemias.
In this 2-year randomized controlled study of 167 men aged 50 years of age and older, supplementation with calcium-vitamin D3-fortified milk providing an additional 1000 mg of calcium and 800 IU of vitamin D3 per day was effective for suppressing PTH and stopping or slowing bone loss at several clinically important skeletal sites at risk for fracture.
In contrast, long-term studies regarding the effect of calcium supplementation on iron status in populations at high risk for compromised iron status failed to show any problems with iron status.
Supplementation with calcium carbonate tablets supplying 1200 mg/d is ineffective as a public health intervention in preventing clinical fractures in the ambulatory elderly population owing to poor long-term compliance, but it is effective in those patients who are compliant.