I read a recent article that is easily found in search that is admittedly well written dealing with Aquarium Redox, with a good explanation as to what Redox is and more, however this article still chooses to repeat much of the same tired old information about only the positives of the oxidative side of the Redox equation, missing the evidence that the reduction side is also VERY important to a healthy Aquarium Redox Balance (I noted that the sources this particular article sited were all more than 15 years old which may explain much of the out of date information).
As the concept of oxidation matured with the development of the , the concept of reduction also became refined, and more importantly, became inextricably linked to oxidation as a simultaneous event that accompanied every oxidation event.
Obviously the electrons leave one species and go to another. Consequently reduction has to be accompanied by oxidation and vice versa. For this reason reactions involving transfer of electrons are called reduction and oxidation or redox for short
consists of a similar to that in chlorophyll butwith an iron(II) ion in the centre of the porphyrin. Heme is bright red. In thered blood cells of vertebrates, heme is bound to proteins forming. Hemoglobin combines with oxygen in the lungs, gills, or otherrespiratory surfaces and releases it in the tissues. In muscle cells,myoglobin, the name given to hemoglobin in muscles, stores oxygen as anelectron source for energy-releasing oxidation-reduction reactions.
The tarnishing of silver is just one example of a broad class of oxidation-reductionreactions that fall under the general heading of corrosion. Anotherexample is the series of reactions that occur when iron or steel rusts. When heated, ironreacts with oxygen to form a mixture of iron(II) and iron(III) oxides.
Spring waters, which are considered to be the most clean, according to the ecological criteria, are filtered through the rocks and subjected to the oxidation and reduction, sorption and catalytic influence.
As a rule, they are mineralized and include non-volatile organic substances, which are detected by the permanganate oxidability (expressed by oxidability by potassium permanganate and potassium dichromate).
Put more bluntly; only water that has been naturally filtered by percolation deep into the earth, heated under pressure to super steam at the mantle and re-imprinted by the clays, gravels and minerals that it passes by on its way to the surface at 4C is fully mature and full of useful electromagnetic energy.
Energy of oxidation by way of degrading organic compounds is absorbed during reduction chemical transformations. Excess ions of the heavy elements transform into insoluble, inert, nontoxic forms. The concentration of ions of light elements are then stabilized.
Water organisms, live in such water, and land animals drink it.
I have mostly discussed Redox Reduction and its misunderstood importance, however there does need to be a balance between reduction and oxidation for proper chemistry within a fish or most all living animal organisms.
The best current research seems to indicate a Redox reading of approximately +125 (freshwater) as a balanced Redox with optimum electromagnetism of the water.
However Redox Potential is often in flux, so I personally believe following healthy aquatic husbandry methods (that consider the affect on Redox) is an aquarists best bet in maintaining this balance. This includes a higher Redox (as high as +350) when oxidation is necessary due to high organic decomposition.
Simultaneously all three of these processes proceed to self-purify natural water on the basis of the chemical reactions of oxidation and reduction.
Living organisms such as fish are adapted to NOT "perfectly clean water", but to ecologically clean water with definite content of organic and inorganic compounds, micro-admixtures, Magnetized ions, and even bacteria or saprophytes (saprophytes are an organism that grows on and derives its metabolic energy from dead or decaying organic matter; such as most fungi).
The range of mentioned components of ecologically clean water is the integral result of oxidation and reduction self-purification of water.
For the photochemical reaction of Cl2 with 2,4-dimethylpentane, how many different monochlorinated isomers would you expect to be produced? Which isomer is produced from the most stable precursor radical?
Bio Chemistry as it relates to Redox Balance:
There are enzymes within a body that are reactive oxygen species (ROS) and others that are reactive nitrogen species (RNS). A disturbance in the oxidationreduction state of the cell, in which ROS production exceeds antioxidant defenses, is called oxidative stress.
By analogy, nitrosative stress is an impairment in nitric oxide (NO) signaling caused by increased amounts of RNS, which may be caused by, or associated with, a disturbance in the Redox state. As discussed earlier, free radicals are highly reactive molecules with unpaired electrons.
In medical studies, the enhanced oxidizing environment can facilitate the binding of pathogens or antigens to effector cells (a type of lymphocyte that are actively engaged in secreting antibodies) leading to a hyper-responsive innate immune system.
Previous work has shown that an oxidizing environment leads to enhanced release of super-oxide and nitric oxide, activation and translocation of nuclear transcription factor and enhanced production of cytokines (proteins and peptides that are signaling compounds produced by animal cells to communicate with one another).
My many observations in both fresh & saltwater lend to this principle too as to how fish, both freshwater & marine respond both short & long term to oxidizers and/or the lack of a constant source of reduction to balance out oxidative stress.
Free radical chemistry is the underpinning of 2 broad classes of signaling molecules in biological systems: ROS, which are reactive intermediates of oxygen metabolism, and a closely related group of RNS.
The forms of ROS that are relevant in biological systems include the superoxide radical (O2), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and hydroxyl radical (OH).
RNS of biological importance include NO, low- and high-molecular-weight S-nitrosothiols, and peroxynitrite (ONOO).