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The starting material of cellular respiration is the sugar ..

The electron transport chain pumps the H-atoms into the intermembrane space of the mitochondria (as H-ions) and chemiosmosis makes ATP from the hydrogen ions.




Now we will cover aerobic respiration in detail, starting with the pyruvic acid that was produced by glycolysis.

ð It takes two turns of Krebs Cycle to complete the oxidation of glucose and two turns of the Krebs Cycle produces two ATPs by substrate-level phosphorylation. However, most ATP output of respiration results from oxidative phosphorylation.ð Reduced coenzymes produced by the krebs Cycle (6NADH and 2 FADH2 per glucose) carry high energy electrons to the electron transport chain.ð The ETC couples electron flow down the chain to ATP synthesis. So, the acetyl fragment of acetyl CoA is added to oxaloacetate to form citrate, which is progressively decomposed back to oxaloacetate. For each turn of the Krebs cycle, two carbons enter in the reduced form from acetyl CoA; three NADH and one FADH2 are formed; and one ATP is made by substrate-level phosphorylation. IX The inner mitochondrial membrane couples electron transport to ATP synthesis:The reduced coenzymes NADH and FADH2 link glycolysis and the Krebs Cycle to oxidative phosphorylation by passing their electrons down the ETC to oxygen. This exergonic transfer of electron is coupled to ATP synthesis. Even the Krebs Cycle occurs only under aerobic conditions, it does not use oxygen directly. The ETC and oxidative phosphorylation require oxygen as the final electron acceptor.A) The Pathway of Electron Transport: The ETC is made of electron carrier molecules embedded in the inner mitochondrial membrane. most of the carrier molecules are proteins and are tightly bond to prosthetic groups (nonprotein cofactors).Prosthetic groups alternate between reduced and oxidized states as they accept and donate electrons. Heme group = Prosthetic group composed of four organic rings surrounding a single iron atom. Cytochrome = Type of protein molecule that contains a heme prosthetic group and that functions as an electron carrier in the ETC of mitochondria and chloroplasts. There are several cytochromes, each a slightly different protein with a heme group. It is the iron of cytochromes that transfers electrons.

Electrons fall from organic molecules to oxygen during cellular respiration.

Identify the reactants and products of cellular respiration and ..

Cells respond to changing metabolic needs by controlling reaction rates. The most common mechanism of control is feedback inhibition. Catabolic pathways, such as glycolysis and Krebs cycle, are controlled by regulating enzyme activity at strategic points. The ratio of ATP to ADP and AMP reflects the energy status of the cell, and phosphofructokinase is sensitive to changes in this ratio. Citrate (produced in Krebs cycle) and ATP are allosteric inhibitors of phosphofructokinase, so when their concentrations rise, the enzyme slows glycolysis. As the rate of glycolysis slows, Krebs cycle also slows since the supply of acetyl CoA is reduced. This synchronizes the rates of glycolysis and Krebs cycle. ADP and AMP are allosteric activators for phosphofructokinase, so when their concentrations relative to ATP rise, the enzyme speeds up glycolysis which speeds up the Krebs cycle. In summary, Glycolysis produces a net of 2 ATP per glucose molecule. Without oxygen, glycolysis is part of fermentation that regenerates NAD+, the oxidizing agent for glycolysis. In alcohol fermentation, pyruvate is converted into acetaldehyde, and CO2 is released. Acetaldehyde is then reduced by NADH to form ethanol (ethyl alcohol), and NAD+ is regenerated. In lactic acid fermentation, pyruvate is reduced to form lactate and recycle NAD+; no CO2 is released. Muscle cells make ATP by lactic acid fermentation when energy demand is high and oxygen supply is low. Comparison of Fermentation and Respiration. Both fermentation and respiration use glycolysis with as the oxidizing agent to convert glucose and other organic fuels to pyruvate. To oxidize fermentation uses pyruvate or acetaldehyde as the final electron acceptor, whereas respiration uses oxygen via the ETC. Also, with oxygen available, pyruvate can be oxidized in the Krebs cycle to produce much more ATP. Facultative anaerobes, such as yeast and some bacteria, can make ATP by fermentation or respiration, depending upon whether oxygen is available. Glycolysis is common to fermentation and respiration. This most widespread of all metabolic processes, occurs in the cytosol of prokaryotes and eukaryotes) probably evolved in ancient prokaryotes before oxygen was available.

Glucose is usually stored in the form of a polysaccharide (starch or glycogen) and broken down as needed for energy.




The ATP's that are made by respiration will be broken down to ADP and P when used by an organelle, and the trapped light energy that was passed from glucose to ATP will then be put to use by the organelle.

ATP-ADP Cycle | Photosynthesis and Respiration ..

The Versatility of Catabolism. Fats, proteins, and carbohydrates can all be used by cellular respiration to make ATP. Proteins are digested into amino acids, which are then deaminated and can enter into respiration at several sites. The digestion of fats yields glycerol, which is converted to an intermediate of glycolysis, and fatty acids, which are broken down by beta oxidation to two-carbon fragments that enter the Krebs cycle as acetyl CoA.

Some organic molecules of food provide the carbon skeletons or raw materials for the synthesis of new macromolecules. Some organic monomers from digestion can be used directly in anabolic pathways, other precursors come from glycolysis or Krebs cycle intermediates which are diverted into anabolic pathways. These anabolic pathways consume ATP produced by catabolic pathways of glycolysis and respiration. In response to the cell’s metabolic demands, Glycolysis and Krebs cycle can convert one type of macromolecule to another.

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Oxygen is necessary for cellular respiration because oxygen :


Cellular Respiration (Krebs Cycle)

When I arrived at my office, I turned on my lights and computer. When I was eating, I put the food that I brought to work in a refrigerator under my desk. During my work day, I interacted with many people in my air-conditioned, high-technology office environment. My cellular telephone was never far away. The view from my office window of the was pleasant. My computer interfaced with our distant data centers and the world at large via the Internet. When my workday was finished, I rode the bus home. In the winter, the furnace is programmed to stop functioning when my wife and I leave for work, and comes on soon before we arrive home, so we never experienced a cold house. In the evening, we might watch a movie on a DVD on our wide-screen plasma TV. When I am not fasting, I usually eat dinner, with the food in my refrigerator usually purchased at a that has an enormous produce section, with food grown locally and imported from as far away as New Zealand, China, and Israel. We have a high-tech kitchen, with a “smart” stove, refrigerator, and other appliances.

the role of ATPase in photosynthesis and cellular respiration.

Some organic molecules of food provide the carbon skeletons or raw materials for the synthesis of new macromolecules. Some organic monomers from digestion can be used directly in anabolic pathways, other precursors come from glycolysis or Krebs cycle intermediates which are diverted into anabolic pathways. These anabolic pathways consume ATP produced by catabolic pathways of glycolysis and respiration. In response to the cell’s metabolic demands, Glycolysis and Krebs cycle can convert one type of macromolecule to another.Cells respond to changing metabolic needs by controlling reaction rates. The most common mechanism of control is feedback inhibition. Catabolic pathways, such as glycolysis and Krebs cycle, are controlled by regulating enzyme activity at strategic points. The ratio of ATP to ADP and AMP reflects the energy status of the cell, and phosphofructokinase is sensitive to changes in this ratio. Citrate (produced in Krebs cycle) and ATP are allosteric inhibitors of phosphofructokinase, so when their concentrations rise, the enzyme slows glycolysis. As the rate of glycolysis slows, Krebs cycle also slows since the supply of acetyl CoA is reduced. This synchronizes the rates of glycolysis and Krebs cycle. ADP and AMP are allosteric activators for phosphofructokinase, so when their concentrations relative to ATP rise, the enzyme speeds up glycolysis which speeds up the Krebs cycle. In summary, Glycolysis produces a net of 2 ATP per glucose molecule. Without oxygen, glycolysis is part of fermentation that regenerates NAD+, the oxidizing agent for glycolysis. In alcohol fermentation, pyruvate is converted into acetaldehyde, and CO2 is released. Acetaldehyde is then reduced by NADH to form ethanol (ethyl alcohol), and NAD+ is regenerated. In lactic acid fermentation, pyruvate is reduced to form lactate and recycle NAD+; no CO2 is released. Muscle cells make ATP by lactic acid fermentation when energy demand is high and oxygen supply is low. Comparison of Fermentation and Respiration. Both fermentation and respiration use glycolysis with as the oxidizing agent to convert glucose and other organic fuels to pyruvate. To oxidize fermentation uses pyruvate or acetaldehyde as the final electron acceptor, whereas respiration uses oxygen via the ETC. Also, with oxygen available, pyruvate can be oxidized in the Krebs cycle to produce much more ATP. Facultative anaerobes, such as yeast and some bacteria, can make ATP by fermentation or respiration, depending upon whether oxygen is available. Glycolysis is common to fermentation and respiration. This most widespread of all metabolic processes, occurs in the cytosol of prokaryotes and eukaryotes) probably evolved in ancient prokaryotes before oxygen was available.Glycolysis and the Krebs cycle connect to many other metabolic pathways.The Versatility of Catabolism. Fats, proteins, and carbohydrates can all be used by cellular respiration to make ATP. Proteins are digested into amino acids, which are then deaminated and can enter into respiration at several sites. The digestion of fats yields glycerol, which is converted to an intermediate of glycolysis, and fatty acids, which are broken down by beta oxidation to two-carbon fragments that enter the Krebs cycle as acetyl CoA. Feedback mechanisms control cellular respiration. Through feedback inhibition, the end product of a pathway inhibits the enzyme that initiates the pathway, thus preventing a cell from producing an excess of a particular substance. The supply of ATP in the cell regulates respiration. The allosteric enzyme that catalyzes an early step of glycolysis, phosphofructokinase, is inhibited by ATP and activated by ADP. Phosphofructokinase is also inhibited by citrate transported from the mitochondria into the cytosol, thus synchronizing the rates of glycolysis and the Krebs cycle. Other enzymes located at key intersections help to maintain metabolic balance.

Science | Photosynthesis | Cellular Respiration

The diagrams used in this chapter are only intended to provide a glimpse of the incredible complexity of structure and chemistry that takes place at the microscopic level in organisms, and people can be forgiven for doubting that it is all a miraculous accident. I doubt it, too, as . Prokaryotes do not have organelles such as mitochondria, chloroplasts, and nuclei, but even the simplest cell is a marvel of complexity. If we could shrink ourselves so that we could stand inside an average bacterium, we would be astounded at its complexity, as molecules move here and there, are brought inside the bacterium’s membrane, used to generate energy and build structures, and waste products are ejected from the organism. Cellular division would be an amazing sight.

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