In summary, studies investigating phonology in dyslexic readers provide novel insights into the neurobiological mechanisms underlying dyslexia in general, which differ from those in normal readers. Yet, a direct comparison of brain activation during phonological tasks among sets of dyslexic children with and without phonological deficits and normal readers is missing. The present study aims to provide a more detailed look at phonological processing in cognitive subtypes of dyslexia from a neurofunctional perspective. The inconsistent findings in previous studies, with respect to hypo- or hyperactivation in different brain areas, might be explainable by the fact that these studies did not consider the existence of cognitive dyslexia subtypes. Rather, the described effect may have been borne by just one cognitive subtype which was over-represented in the study sample. We hypothesize that activation profiles for a phonological task differ not only between dyslexics and controls, but also between the two dyslexia subtypes. We would expect that dyslexics, in contrast to controls, would show increased activation profiles in left inferior frontal regions involving Brodmann area 44, given its previously reported role in phonological processing. Furthermore, we would expect subtype-specific differences in brain activation. Phonological dyslexics may reveal increased activation profiles in phonology-related areas while dyslexics without phonological deficits would not show hyperactivation. To attain an integrative approach to brain function and behavior, the present study correlates test scores of phonological processing and reading ability with activation intensity in brain areas differing between dyslexics and controls and between the two dyslexia subtypes. We expect that hyperactivation in dyslexics will be associated with lower test scores in phonological awareness and reading ability. For task performance inside the scanner, we hypothesize that controls will pass with distinction and that dyslexics with phonological deficits will perform significantly below the level of non-phonological dyslexics as well as controls.
The standardized psychometric tests and paradigms employed for the assessment of cognitive function assessed non-verbal intelligence, visual and auditory perception, phonological awareness, reading, and writing, and will now be explained in more detail.
...e way the orthographic units represent the phonology of the language. This is the origin of the orthographic depth hypothesis (ODH; Frost et al. 1987; Katz & Frost 1992) and of the grain-size theory (=-=Ziegler & Goswami 2005-=-), which classify orthographic systems according to their letter-to-phoneme transparency. This approach to reading originates from extensive research in European languages where the main differences i...
...lowing down spoken word recognition. The second explanation assumes that orthographic consistency plays a major role during the restructuring of phonological representations (Muneaux & Ziegler, 2004; =-=Ziegler & Goswami, 2005-=-). The idea is that orthographically consistent words develop better and finer-grained phonological representations in the course of reading development. Thus, orthography would not be coactivated in ...
...l decoding, which is typically measured by examining children’s nonword reading performance, is one of the most critical indices for successful reading acquisition (e.g., Share, 1995; Snowling, 2000; =-=Ziegler & Goswami, 2005-=-). Nonword reading is a crucial skill because it allows children to make the connection between novel letter sequences and words that are already stored in their phonological (spokenword) lexicon. It ...
To visualize the differences in phonological awareness and reading ability as a unique identifier for group and to show the dependency between the scores of phonological awareness and reading ability, a correlation analysis between these two cognitive demands was performed.
For an overview, the behavioral data from the diagnostic session before scanning are shown in and were further analyzed with SPSS for Windows version 19.0 (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, Illinois). The reading screening showed significant differences between the groups (F2,41 = 59,285; p SPSS 19.0 was performed. The comparison of the mean T-values of the phonological awareness test of all three groups showed significant differences (F2,41 = 35.38; p
Linguistic sub-discipline which studies the phonetic aspects of speech (concrete articulatory, acoustic and auditory characteristics of sounds) with regard to its function.
In summary, the behavioral data from testing inside the scanner revealed significant differences between the phonological task and the control task among the dyslexic subgroups, whereby the phonological dyslexics performed worse on the phonological task compared to the non-phonological dyslexics and the controls. As to performance on the phonological task minus the control task, there were no significant differences between the non-phonological dyslexics and the controls. For the phonological task and the control task separately there were no significant differences between the three groups.
Central term in linguistics but one which covers a wide range of phenomena being used in mass noun and count noun senses; several types of grammar: descriptive grammar (description of a language as found in a sample of speech or writing), theoretical grammar (goes beyond the study of individual languages, using linguistic data as a means of developing theoretical insights into the nature of language as such, and into the categories and processes needed for successful linguistic analysis), distinction between synchronic and diachronic grammar, traditional grammar (an attempt to summarize the range of attitudes and methods found in the pre-linguistic era of grammatical study); in a restricted sense, grammar refers to a level of structural organization which can be studies independently of phonology and semantics, and generally divided into the branches of syntax and morphology.
A term used in pragmatics and discourse analysis, to refer to relative prominence in discourse, often involving deviance from a linguistic norm; the analogy is of a figure seen against a background (backgrounding); the deviant or prominent feature is said to have been foregrounded; e.g. the use of rhyme, alliteration, and metrical regularity are examples of foregrounding operating at the level of phonology. Since foregrounding involves the dislocation of one constituent in a syntactic structure it can be used as a test for constituency. Possible constructions in which one constituent is foreground are cleft-sentences and pseudo-cleft-sentences in which information is reorganized in a sentence.
Lastly, we wanted to establish whether inside the scanner resembled that outside the scanner. Therefore, the performance in the standardized BAKO test of phonological awareness outside the scanner was correlated with the performance in the phonological task inside the scanner (controlling for initial reading score and response speed). This partial correlation was moderate (r = .258, p = .05).