Energy Flows and Matter Cycles. Primary Producers – autotrophs capable of converting solar energy into chemical energy (plants, photosynthetic protists,
Light is a very important factor in the rate of photosynthesis, in my project I am going to test that plants do need light in order to photosynthesise.
Drosophila, best known as vinegar fly or fruit fly, is the little fly you see flyingaround vinegar and on fruit during the fall. Why raise vinegar flies? To observe theirdevelopment, to observe the chromosomes of their salivary glands during division, toperform experiments on genetics, finally as food for amphibians that have just completedtheir metamorphosis. In this case it is necessary to breed a species that can't fly. Youcan obtain individuals with vestigial wings (wings which are not fully developed)at a university Biology or natural sciences department.
Culture medium recipe for drosophila: water 83 ml, agar-agar 0.8 g, sugar 5 g, brewer'syeast 10 g, alcohol 1.3 ml, nipagin
0.25 g. Nipagin M is used as a preservative in foods and cosmetics, like agar-agar, youcan buy it at the stores that sell science items for laboratories. Mix the yeast and thesugar, add agar-agar and water and simmer for 3 minutes. Turn off the heat. Dissolve thenipagin in alcohol and add to the rest when it has stopped smoking. Mix and let it set.
You can find other recipes at the following websites:
Aquick and simple introduction to Drosophila melanogaster
Fruit Flies - Drosophila melanogaster
Drosophila Culture (how to culture flightless fruit flies)
Observing the Development of Drosophila in Apple Juice Agar
Drosophila Genetics Lab I
A bibliography for an insect field biology course
La drosophile (in French)
Internet keywords: drosophila culture -cells, wingless fruit flies vinegar fly.
An ecosystem consists of the whole community of living organisms (biocenosis), the abioticcomponent of a certain environment (biotope) and their relationships.
The relationships essentially consist in a flux of substances which pass from thenon-living components to living ones and in a flux of energy which passes from thephotosynthetic organisms (plants) to the herbivorous animals, then to carnivores. Thewastes and the dead organisms are then decomposed by the micro-organisms which brake downthe substances back to simple components, in a full cycle.
1 - With a shovel in a field or in a wood, dig a square hole of about half a meter (1 1/2feet) square and about 40 cm (18") deep. Describe the non-living components of thesoil and all forms of life you find: roots, earthworms, snails, centipedes, spiders,crickets, etc. To complete the description of the ecosystem of the soil, look forinformation on the role of each of these organisms and the relationships with the otherforms of life of this environment.
2 - In similar way you have studied the soil ecosystem, you can analyze other ecosystemssuch as the ones in a forest, pond, shore, or desert.
G. and L. Durrell (2) can be useful, or there are many other books on this matter.
An Illustration of a Soil Ecosystem
Protocols for a Soil Ecosystem Approach for Characterizing Soil Biodiversity
Internet keywords: soil ecosystem.
After a shower, the soil is soft and the animals which walked there, leave tracks. Bymeans of plaster, you can obtain the mould of these tracks and make an
interesting collection (figure 9). The experiment is very simple: it is a question ofbringing a little plaster in dry form, some water, a bowl to mix the plaster,
and a spoon to stir. But, to which animal belong the tracks you have picked up? From herestart the research of information. They exist books which give the picture of the tracksof many animals. Moreover, recognizing the animal which left the track is not sufficient:it is necessary to know something of its behavior, etc. From the simple collection oftracks you will be curious to know the animals of your land. Our article: "" provides you some indication on this topic. This experiment will openyour eyes so you can observe the territory around you when you walk in naturalenvironments with more attention. Plaster can be used also to obtain the mould of fruits,barks and other natural objects. From the cast you can also obtain the original shape.
I think this because the plant may use up all of the carbon dioxide (Sodium hydro carbonate) and the plant can have as much light as it needs but if it does not have any carbon dioxide it will not be able to photosynthesise....
It will be very interesting to see how light will influence the rate of photosynthesis in plants and what will happen if they do not get the required light in order to produce starch .
This process is also affected by the temperature surrounding the plant (the species of plant we experimented with, pond weed, photosynthesised best at around 20 degrees centigrade.) Light, temperature & CO2 are known as limiting factors, and each is as important as the next in photosynthes...
The occurrence of photosynthesis is very important to us as humans, because it provides us with the oxygen we need to breathe and plants are at the bottom of every food-chain and so without them, I would collapse....
Through reading various books and web pages it was made clear that carbon dioxide is definitely one of the raw materials needed for photosynthesis, but I wanted to see whether this is actually true and if carbon dioxide is taken away completely will the plant photosynthesize at all.
Variables: The variables that might affect the rate of photosynthesis in this experiment are: Temperature: When the temperature rises so does the rate of photosynthesis; this is because as the temperature around the plant rises the enzymes controlling photosynthesis inside the chloroplasts heat up and start moving around faster, the fast moving molecules collide with other fast moving enzymes causing them to react....
Hypothesis:Photosynthesis is a process by which green plants and certain other organisms use the energy of light to convert carbon dioxide and water into the simple sugar glucose....
6CO + 6H O ® C H O + 12O (in the presence of light energy and chlorophyll) Aim- The aim of the experiment is to determine what effect light intensity has upon the rate of photosynthesis of Canadian Pondweed (Elodea)....
The Effects of Elevated Carbon Dioxide Levels on the Transpiratoin Rates of Zonal Geranium PlantsHow Does the Introduction of NaF Affect the Rate of Photosynthesis in Isolated Chloroplasts?