Below are things that plants need for photosynthesis:
Carbon dioxide (A colorless, naturally occurring odorless gas found in the air we breathe. It has a scientific symbol CO2. CO2 is produced by burning carbon and organic compounds. It is also produced when plants and animals breathe out during respiration)
Light (Even though both natural and artificial light is OK for plants, natural sunlight is usually great for photosynthesis because they have other natural UV properties that help the plant)
Chlorophyll (This is the green pigment found in the leaves of plants)
Nutrients and minerals (Chemicals and organic compounds which the plant roots absorb from the soil)
There are two major components of photosynthesis: the light cycle and the dark cycle. As implied by these names, the reactions in the light cycle require energy input from sunlight (or some artificial light source) to take place. The reactions in the dark cycle do not have to take place in the dark, but they can progress when sunlight is not present.
Fake plastic trees, director of the Lenfest Center for Sustainable Energy at Columbia University, has come up with a technique that he thinks could solve the problem. Lackner has designed an artificial tree that passively soaks up carbon dioxide from the air using “leaves” that are 1,000 times more efficient than true leaves that use photosynthesis.