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Photosynthesis evolution in Cyanobacteria | Science

In the Lizard Evolution Virtual Lab students explore the evolution of the anole lizards in the Caribbean by collecting and analyzing their own data.

We have updated the Lizard Evolution Virtual Lab based on feedback from field testers (over 50 classrooms!).

The virtual lab includes four modules that investigate different concepts in evolutionary biology, including adaptation, convergent evolution, phylogenetic analysis, reproductive isolation, and speciation. Each module involves data collection, calculations, analysis and answering questions. The “Educators” tab includes lists of key concepts and learning objectives and detailed suggestions for incorporating the lab in your instruction.

Updates to the virtual lab include:

Other topics include evolution, electron transfer pathways, kinetics, and genetic manipulations.

The evolution of C4 photosynthesis - Wiley Online Library

The evolution of photosynthesis | Science Interviews | …

Raymond et al. performed a whole-genome comparison of representatives from all ?ve groups of photosynthetic prokaryotes. They observed that the genomes of these organisms represent mosaics of genes with very different evolutionary histories. In addition, they describe a subset of "photosynthesis-speci?c" genes that were elucidated through a differential genome comparison.

"These ideas suggest further tests of estimating times of divergence and lateral gene transfer for these and the other photosynthetic bacteria compared here. Mapping the early events in the evolution and distribution of photosynthesis stands as a formidable but exciting challenge", conclude the authors.

Evolution of Photosynthesis | Annual Review of Plant …

Photosynthesis transforms solar energy into oxygen and sugar and first arose in bacteria, but the involved in the origin and evolution of the existing bacterial phototrophs have been unclear. In November 22 , Jason Raymond and colleagues at , Tempe, USA, show that horizontal gene flow has played a major role in the evolution of bacterial phototrophs and that many of the essential components of photosynthesis are among these horizontally transferred genes (, 298: 1616-1620, November 22, 2002).

Cyanobacteria and the evolution of photosynthesis.

By contrast, evolution of a new photosynthetic pathway (C4) has occurred independently and on many occasions in diverse taxa over 25 to 30 million years as CO2 levels declined. Despite its complexity, C4 photosynthesis evolved more than 60 independent times in 19 distantly related flowering families. About 50% of C4 species are grasses (Poaceae) with ~18 distinct origins distributed over 370 genera and ~4600 species (Sage et al. 2011). The oldest identifiable fossils with pronounced bundle sheath layers are seven million years old, although necessary metabolic pathways could have evolved earlier, prior to this adaptation in anatomy. C4 plants are known to differ from C3 plants in their discrimination against atmospheric 13CO2, and shifts in the stable carbon isotope signature of soil carbonate layers that reflect emergence of C4 plants have been dated at 7.5 million years bp. Modern evidence from molecular phylogeny places the origin of the main C4 taxa at 25-30 million years ago (Christin et al. 2009). By inference, C4 photosynthesis evolved in response to a significant decline in atmospheric CO2 concentration, from 1500–3000 µL L–1 to about 300 µL L–1. By evolving a CO2-concentrating mechanism, C4 plants presented their Rubisco with an elevated partial pressure of CO2 despite lower atmospheric CO2. As a consequence, photorespiration was inhibited, maximum photosynthetic rates increased and energetic costs reduced.

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Demonstrating Oxygen Evolution During Photosynthesis …

2.2.1 - Evolution of C4 photosynthesis | Plants in Action

Angiosperms have a higher relative specificity of Rubisco for CO2 than ferns and mosses (see examples of other less evolutionarily advanced species in Figure 2.3). Such differences imply minor evolution in this highly conserved molecule of Rubisco and there is little variation between species of vascular plants. Consequently, alteration of Rubisco in response to a changing atmospheric CO2 concentration has not been an option.

Evolution of photosynthesis | The Scientist Magazine®

Under the early high concentration of CO2, photorespiration of C3 plants was inhibited (Section 2.3) so that photosynthetic efficiency was higher than it is now. In addition, maximum photosynthetic rates were double twentieth century values, and the energy cost of photosynthesis would have been around three ATP and two NADPH per molecule of CO2 fixed. As atmospheric CO2 concentrations declined to approximately 250–300 µL L–1, photosynthetic rates were halved, photorespiration increased substantially, photosynthetic efficiency declined and the energetic costs of photosynthesis increased to approximately five ATP and 3.2 NADPH per CO2 molecule fixed. Such events would have generated a strong selection pressure for genetic variants with increased carboxylation efficiency and increased photosynthetic rates.

The evolution of C4 photosynthesis - ANU

Figure 2.3. C4 photosynthesis is an evolutionary development where specialised mesophyll cells initially fix CO2 from the air into 4-carbon acids which are transported to the site of the PCR cycle in the bundle sheath. The bundle sheath cells are relatively impermeable to CO2, so that when the CO2 is released here from the 4-carbon acids, it builds up to high levels. The C4 photosynthetic mechanism is a biochemical CO2 pump. The pathway shown here is overlayed on a micrograph of a C4 leaf, showing bundle sheath and mesophyll cells. Rubisco and the other PCR enzymes are in the bundle sheath cells while phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxylase is part of the CO2 pump in the mesophyll cells. In C4 plants, after radioactive labelling, 14C appears first in a 4-carbon acid, rather than in 3-PGA. Scale bar = 10 µm. (Original drawings courtesy M.D. Hatch).

Molecular Evidence for the Early Evolution of Photosynthesis

Furthermore, even before lysis, the infection of microbes alters host metabolism. Virus-induced changes in host metabolism can be so significant that the resulting infected particle is, biochemically and metabolically, a very different cell. For example, phage-infected cyanobacteria exhibit a higher rate of photosynthesis than their noninfected counterparts, presumably changing their rate of fixation of carbon from the environment until they are eventually killed by the infection. Bacterial cells undergoing active phage infections can also have altered distributions of other major elements, such as nitrogen and phosphorus, making them biochemically unique.

Quantum entanglement in photosynthesis and evolution

Identify bacteria, examine heart patients, probe the nervous system, assay antibodies, study circadian rhythms, and analyze evolution in action.

Lizard Evolution Virtual Lab | HHMI BioInteractive

In the Lizard Evolution Virtual Lab students explore the evolution of the anole lizards in the Caribbean by collecting and analyzing their own data.

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