The summary reaction equation for this process (called cellular respiration) is:
6 O2 +C6H12O6 -> 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + energized ATP
ATP serves as kind of molecular battery that can carry energy to chemical reactions taking place in various regions of the cell.
The summary reaction equation for photosynthesis is:
The energy stored in sugars (and carbohydrates more generally) is used by the cells of most all life forms to drive their own enzymes.
The product of photosynthesis is a , such as the sugar , and oxygen which is released into the atmosphere (Figure 9l-1). All of the sugar produced in the photosynthetic cells of plants and other organisms is derived from the initial chemical combining of carbon dioxide and water with sunlight (Figure 9l-1). This chemical reaction is catalyzed by acting together with other , , , , and molecules. Sugars created in photosynthesis can be later converted by the plant to starch for storage, or it can be combined with other sugar molecules to form specialized carbohydrates, such as . Sugars can also be combined with other such as nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur, to build complex molecules such as proteins and nucleic acids.
The bodies of living organisms within a unit area make up a standing crop of . More specifically, biomass can be defined as the mass of organisms per unit area and is usually expressed in units of energy (e.g., joules m-2) or dry organic matter (e.g., tons ha -1 or grams m -2). Most of the biomass in a is composed of plants, which are the of biomass because of their ability to carbon through . This chemical reaction can be described by the following simple formula: