Development of antibody-like polymers, called molecular imprinted polymers (MIPs). Environmental Diagnostic Detection platform for both military and civilian usage, to detect small molecule chemical toxins.
The depuration process flow and schematic diagram of a shellfish purification plant are shown in Figure 23.Seaweeds, aside from being used as food, are important sources of colloids or gels, such as agar, as well as minerals of medicinal importance such as iodine.
Photosynthetic organisms can be divided into two classes:those which produce oxygen and those which do not. Photosyntheticbacteria do not produce oxygen (in fact some of them calledanaerobes cannot tolerate oxygen) and this is considered a moreprimitive type of photosynthesis (in which the hydrogen donor ishydrogen sulfide, lactate or other compounds, but not water).Plants and one type of bacteria (cyanobacteria) do produceoxygen, an evolutionarily more advanced type of photosynthesis(in which the hydrogen donor is water).
In a broad chemical sense, the opposite of photosynthesis isrespiration. Most of life on this planet (all except in the deepsea vents) depends on the reciprocal photosynthesis-drivenproduction of carbon containing compounds by a series of reducing(adding electrons) chemical reactions carried out by plants andthen the opposite process of oxidative (removing electrons)chemical reactions by animals (and plants, which are capable ofboth photosynthesis and respiration) in which these carboncompounds are broken down to carbon dioxide and water.
Photosynthesis converts these energy- depleted compounds (ADPand NADP+) back to the high energy forms (ATP and NADPH) and theenergy thus produced in this chemical form is utilized to drivethe chemical reactions necessary for synthesis of sugars andother carbon containing compounds (e.g., proteins, fats). Theproduction of high energy ATP and NADPH in plants occurs in whatis known as Light Phase Reactions (Z Scheme) (requiressunlight). The energy releasing reactions which converts themback to energy-depleted ADP and NADP is known as Dark PhaseReactions (Calvin Cycle) (does not require light) in whichthe synthesis of glucose and other carbohydrates occurs.
The highest rate of 14C production takes place at stratospheric altitudes of 9 to 15 km. Unlike the commonly available carbon, 12C, 14C is unstable and slowly decays, changing it back to nitrogen and releasing energy. This instability makes it radioactive. The 14C isotope is brought to the earth by atmospheric activities (such as storms) and becomes fixed in the biosphere. Since 14C reacts just like 12C and 13C isotopes of carbon, it becomes part of a plant through photosynthesis reactions. Animals eating these plants in turn absorb 14C as well as the stable isotopes (i.e., 12C and 13C). This process of ingesting 14C continues as long as the plant or animal remains alive. Because 14C is so well mixed up with 12C, the ratio between 14C and 12C is the same in a leaf from a tree, or a part of an animal body. 14C also enters the Earth's oceans in an atmospheric exchange and as dissolved carbonate. The entire 14C inventory is termed the .
So we can summarize by saying that the photosynthetic plantstrap solar energy to form ATP and NADPH (Light Phase) and thenuse these as the energy source to make carbohydrates and otherbiomolecules from carbon dioxide and water (Dark Phase),simultaneously releasing oxygen in to the atmosphere. Thechemoheterotrophic animals reverse this process by using theoxygen to degrade the energy-rich organic products ofphotosynthesis to CO2 and water in order to generate ATP fortheir own synthesis of biomolecules.
Photoaututrophs utilize sunlight for energy and CO2 for theircarbon source by this process of PHOTOSYNTHESIS whereby sunlightis absorbed by a complex compound known as chlorophyll andconverted to energy which drives a series of chemical reactionsthat ultimately removes hydrogen from water or other compoundsand then combines the hydrogen with carbon dioxide in a way thatproduces sugars.
Plant photosynthesis, both the Light Phase and Dark phasereactions, takes place in chloroplasts, which may be regarded asthe "power plants" of the green leaf cells. At night,when there is no sunlight energy, ATP continues to be generatedfor the plant's needs by respiration, i.e., oxidation of(photosynthetically produced) carbohydrate in mitochondria(similar to animals).
Age measurements are possible because 14C becomes a part of all organic and inorganic carbon compounds and a steady state between the uptake (photosynthesis or food) and the decay of 14C exists as long as the organism is alive. After death, the only remaining process is decay ( decay in which 14C decays to nitrogen). Measurement of the -decay rate or counting the remaining 14C atoms gives a measure of the time that elapsed since the steady state is broken. After the emission of , i.e., a beta particle, 14C is changed into stable and non-radioactive nitrogen, 14N. In other words, the 14C/12C ratio gets smaller and smaller over time. So, we have something like a "clock" which starts ticking the moment a living being dies. Thus it can be said that the radiocarbon dating method can, in principle, be uniformly applied throughout the world.
Chloroplasts have many shapes in different species but aregenerally fusiform shaped (and much larger than mitochondria) andhave many flattened membrane-surrounded vesicles called thylakoidswhich are arranged in stacks called grana. Thesethylakoid membranes contain all of the photosynthetic pigments ofthe chloroplast and all of the enzymes required for Light Phasereactions. The fluid in the stroma surrounding the thylakoidvesicles contains most of the enzymes for Dark phase reactions.
For each electron flowing from water to NADP+ (a net change in1.14 volts), two quanta of light are absorbed, one by eachPhotosystem. Each molecule of oxygen released involves the flowof four electrons from two water molecules to two NADP+s andrequires four quanta of sunlight absorbed by each Photosystem toprovide the energy to do this. These are the "Light PhaseReactions" of photosynthesis, which produce two high energychemical products, namely NADPH and ATP.