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reactions and the biochemistry of photosynthesis, respiration, ..

Phytochrome and Light Control of Plant Development

The Photochemical and Biochemical Properties of Phytochrome
Phytochrome can interconvert between Pr and Pfr forms
Pfr is the physiologically active form of phytochrome
Characteristics of Phytochrome-Induced Responses
Phytochrome responses vary in lag time and escape time
Phytochrome responses can be distinguished by the amount of light required
Very low–fluence responses are nonphotoreversible
Low-fluence responses are photoreversible
High-irradiance responses are proportional to the irradiance and the duration
Structure and Function of Phytochrome Proteins
Phytochrome has several important functional domains
Phytochrome is a light-regulated protein kinase
Pfr is partitioned between the cytosol and nucleus
Phytochromes are encoded by a multigene family
Genetic Analysis of Phytochrome Function
Phytochrome A mediates responses to continuous far-red light
Phytochrome B mediates responses to continuous red or white light
Roles for phytochromes C, D, and E are emerging
Phy gene family interactions are complex
PHY gene functions have diversified during evolution
Phytochrome Signaling Pathways
Phytochrome regulates membrane potentials and ion fluxes
Phytochrome regulates gene expression
Phytochrome interacting factors (PIFs) act early in phy signaling
Phytochrome associates with protein kinases and phosphatases
Phytochrome-induced gene expression involves protein degradation
Circadian Rhythms
The circadian oscillator involves a transcriptional negative feedback loop
Ecological Functions
Phytochrome regulates the sleep movements of leaves
Phytochrome enables plant adaptation to light quality changes
Decreasing the R:FR ratio causes elongation in sun plants
Small seeds typically require a high R:FR ratio for germination
Phytochrome interactions are important early in germination
Reducing shade avoidance responses can improve crop yields
Phytochrome responses show ecotypic variation
Phytochrome action can be modulated
Summary
Web Material
Chapter References
18.

Respiration and Lipid Metabolism

Overview of Plant Respiration
Glycolysis: A Cytosolic and Plastidic Process
Glycolysis converts carbohydrates into pyruvate, producing NADH and ATP
Plants have alternative glycolytic reactions
In the absence of O2, fermentation regenerates the NAD+ needed for glycolysis
Fermentation does not liberate all the energy available in each sugar molecule
Plant glycolysis is controlled by its products
The pentose phosphate pathway produces NADPH and biosynthetic intermediates
The Citric Acid Cycle: A Mitochondrial Matrix Process
Mitochondria are semiautonomous organelles
Pyruvate enters the mitochondrion and is oxidized via the citric acid cycle
The citric acid cycle of plants has unique features
Mitochondrial Electron Transport and ATP Synthesis
The electron transport chain catalyzes a flow of electrons from NADH to O2
Some electron transport enzymes are unique to plant mitochondria
ATP synthesis in the mitochondrion is coupled to electron transport
Transporters exchange substrates and products
Aerobic respiration yields about 60 molecules of ATP per molecule of sucrose
Several subunits of respiratory complexes are encoded by the mitochondrial genome
Plants have several mechanisms that lower the ATP yield
Mitochondrial respiration is controlled by key metabolites
Respiration is tightly coupled to other pathways
Respiration in Intact Plants and Tissues
Plants respire roughly half of the daily photosynthetic yield
Respiration operates during photosynthesis
Different tissues and organs respire at different rates
Mitochondrial function is crucial during pollen development
Environmental factors alter respiration rates
Lipid Metabolism
Fats and oils store large amounts of energy
Triacylglycerols are stored in oil bodies
Polar glycerolipids are the main structural lipids in membranes
Fatty acid biosynthesis consists of cycles of two-carbon addition
Glycerolipids are synthesized in the plastids and the ER
Lipid composition influences membrane function
Membrane lipids are precursors of important signaling compounds
Storage lipids are converted into carbohydrates in germinating seeds
Summary
Web Material
Chapter References

12.

Question Bank of Biology Questions and Answers - 3

Answer questions asked by users of Biology Questions and Answers.

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide - Wikipedia

Phytochrome and Light Control of Plant Development

The Photochemical and Biochemical Properties of Phytochrome
Phytochrome can interconvert between Pr and Pfr forms
Pfr is the physiologically active form of phytochrome
Characteristics of Phytochrome-Induced Responses
Phytochrome responses vary in lag time and escape time
Phytochrome responses can be distinguished by the amount of light required
Very low–fluence responses are nonphotoreversible
Low-fluence responses are photoreversible
High-irradiance responses are proportional to the irradiance and the duration
Structure and Function of Phytochrome Proteins
Phytochrome has several important functional domains
Phytochrome is a light-regulated protein kinase
Pfr is partitioned between the cytosol and nucleus
Phytochromes are encoded by a multigene family
Genetic Analysis of Phytochrome Function
Phytochrome A mediates responses to continuous far-red light
Phytochrome B mediates responses to continuous red or white light
Roles for phytochromes C, D, and E are emerging
Phy gene family interactions are complex
PHY gene functions have diversified during evolution
Phytochrome Signaling Pathways
Phytochrome regulates membrane potentials and ion fluxes
Phytochrome regulates gene expression
Phytochrome interacting factors (PIFs) act early in phy signaling
Phytochrome associates with protein kinases and phosphatases
Phytochrome-induced gene expression involves protein degradation
Circadian Rhythms
The circadian oscillator involves a transcriptional negative feedback loop
Ecological Functions
Phytochrome regulates the sleep movements of leaves
Phytochrome enables plant adaptation to light quality changes
Decreasing the R:FR ratio causes elongation in sun plants
Small seeds typically require a high R:FR ratio for germination
Phytochrome interactions are important early in germination
Reducing shade avoidance responses can improve crop yields
Phytochrome responses show ecotypic variation
Phytochrome action can be modulated
Summary
Web Material
Chapter References

18.

Photosynthesis: Carbon Reactions

The Calvin Cycle
The Calvin cycle has three stages: carboxylation, reduction, and regeneration
The carboxylation of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate is catalyzed by the enzyme rubisco
Operation of the Calvin cycle requires the regeneration of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate
The Calvin cycle regenerates its own biochemical components
The Calvin cycle uses energy very efficiently
Regulation of the Calvin Cycle
Light regulates the Calvin cycle
The activity of rubisco increases in the light
The ferredoxin–thioredoxin system regulates the Calvin cycle
Light-dependent ion movements regulate Calvin cycle enzymes
The C2 Oxidative Photosynthetic Carbon Cycle
Photosynthetic CO2 fixation and photorespiratory oxygenation are competing reactions
Photorespiration depends on the photosynthetic electron transport system
The biological function of photorespiration is under investigation
CO2-Concentrating Mechanisms
I.

Benzene at the Gasoline Pump and In Your Home, How …

Stress Physiology

Water Deficit and Drought Tolerance
Drought resistance strategies can vary
Decreased leaf area is an early response to water deficit
Water deficit stimulates leaf abscission
Water deficit enhances root extension
Abscisic acid signals stomatal closure during water deficit
Water deficit limits photosynthesis
Osmotic adjustment of cells helps maintain water balance
Water deficit increases resistance to water flow
Water deficit increases leaf wax deposition
Water deficit alters energy dissipation from leaves
CAM plants are adapted to water stress
Osmotic stress changes gene expression
ABA-dependent and ABA-independent signaling pathways regulate stress tolerance
Heat Stress and Heat Shock
High leaf temperature and minimal evaporative cooling lead to heat stress
At high temperatures, photosynthesis is inhibited before respiration
Plants adapted to cool temperatures acclimate poorly to high temperatures
Temperature affects membrane stability
Several adaptations protect leaves against excessive heating
At higher temperatures, plants produce protective proteins
A transcription factor mediates HSP accumulation
HSPs mediate tolerance to high temperatures
Several signaling pathways mediate thermotolerance responses
Chilling and Freezing
Membrane properties change in response to chilling injury
Ice crystal formation and protoplast dehydration kill cells
Limitation of ice formation contributes to freezing tolerance
Some woody plants can acclimate to very low temperatures
Some bacteria living on leaf surfaces increase frost damage
Acclimation to freezing involves ABA and protein synthesis
Numerous genes are induced during cold acclimation
A transcription factor regulates cold-induced gene expression
Salinity Stress
Salt accumulation in irrigated soils impairs plant function
Plant show great diversity for salt tolerance
Salt stress causes multiple injury effects
Plants use multiple strategies to reduce salt stress
Ion exclusion and compartmentation reduce salinity stress
Plant adaptations to toxic trace elements
Oxygen Deficiency
Anaerobic microorganisms are active in water-saturated soils
Roots are damaged in anoxic environments
Damaged O2-deficient roots injure shoots
Submerged organs can acquire O2 through specialized structures
Most plant tissues cannot tolerate anaerobic conditions
Synthesis of anaerobic stress proteins leads to acclimation to O2 deficit
Summary
Web Material
Chapter References

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is a coenzyme found in all living cells

Respiration and Lipid Metabolism

Overview of Plant Respiration
Glycolysis: A Cytosolic and Plastidic Process
Glycolysis converts carbohydrates into pyruvate, producing NADH and ATP
Plants have alternative glycolytic reactions
In the absence of O2, fermentation regenerates the NAD+ needed for glycolysis
Fermentation does not liberate all the energy available in each sugar molecule
Plant glycolysis is controlled by its products
The pentose phosphate pathway produces NADPH and biosynthetic intermediates
The Citric Acid Cycle: A Mitochondrial Matrix Process
Mitochondria are semiautonomous organelles
Pyruvate enters the mitochondrion and is oxidized via the citric acid cycle
The citric acid cycle of plants has unique features
Mitochondrial Electron Transport and ATP Synthesis
The electron transport chain catalyzes a flow of electrons from NADH to O2
Some electron transport enzymes are unique to plant mitochondria
ATP synthesis in the mitochondrion is coupled to electron transport
Transporters exchange substrates and products
Aerobic respiration yields about 60 molecules of ATP per molecule of sucrose
Several subunits of respiratory complexes are encoded by the mitochondrial genome
Plants have several mechanisms that lower the ATP yield
Mitochondrial respiration is controlled by key metabolites
Respiration is tightly coupled to other pathways
Respiration in Intact Plants and Tissues
Plants respire roughly half of the daily photosynthetic yield
Respiration operates during photosynthesis
Different tissues and organs respire at different rates
Mitochondrial function is crucial during pollen development
Environmental factors alter respiration rates
Lipid Metabolism
Fats and oils store large amounts of energy
Triacylglycerols are stored in oil bodies
Polar glycerolipids are the main structural lipids in membranes
Fatty acid biosynthesis consists of cycles of two-carbon addition
Glycerolipids are synthesized in the plastids and the ER
Lipid composition influences membrane function
Membrane lipids are precursors of important signaling compounds
Storage lipids are converted into carbohydrates in germinating seeds
Summary
Web Material
Chapter References
12.

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Full text of "NEW" - Internet Archive


Benzene at the Gasoline Pump and In Your Home, …

Photosynthesis: Carbon Reactions

The Calvin Cycle
The Calvin cycle has three stages: carboxylation, reduction, and regeneration
The carboxylation of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate is catalyzed by the enzyme rubisco
Operation of the Calvin cycle requires the regeneration of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate
The Calvin cycle regenerates its own biochemical components
The Calvin cycle uses energy very efficiently
Regulation of the Calvin Cycle
Light regulates the Calvin cycle
The activity of rubisco increases in the light
The ferredoxin–thioredoxin system regulates the Calvin cycle
Light-dependent ion movements regulate Calvin cycle enzymes
The C2 Oxidative Photosynthetic Carbon Cycle
Photosynthetic CO2 fixation and photorespiratory oxygenation are competing reactions
Photorespiration depends on the photosynthetic electron transport system
The biological function of photorespiration is under investigation
CO2-Concentrating Mechanisms
I.

BOLO Biology Newsletter Archive: Daily Newsletter: …

Changes for the new edition include:

A new chapter (Chapter 24) on Brassinosteroids
A completely rewritten Chapter 16 (Growth and Development)
Updates on recent developments in the light reactions and the biochemistry of photosynthesis, respiration, ion transport, and water relations
In the hormone chapters, new information about signaling pathways and regulatory mechanisms
Coverage of major breakthroughs on the control of flowering, including the latest findings on the identity of the long-sought-after photoperiodic floral stimulus, “florigen.”
As with the Third Edition, material typically considered prerequisite for plant physiology courses, as well as advanced material, is posted at the companion website.

Plant Physiology, Fourth Edition ..

Changes for the new edition include:

A new chapter (Chapter 24) on Brassinosteroids
A completely rewritten Chapter 16 (Growth and Development)
Updates on recent developments in the light reactions and the biochemistry of photosynthesis, respiration, ion transport, and water relations
In the hormone chapters, new information about signaling pathways and regulatory mechanisms
Coverage of major breakthroughs on the control of flowering, including the latest findings on the identity of the long-sought-after photoperiodic floral stimulus, “florigen.”

As with the Third Edition, material typically considered prerequisite for plant physiology courses, as well as advanced material, is posted at the companion website.

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