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Fuel cells for electric power production

Some of the fuel cells achieved even higher efficiencies than this (Stimming)
[5] Based on recent reports for example Nissan and Suzuki (Comline)
[6] From JPL Website "Description of Direct Oxidation, Liquid Feed Methanol Fuel Cell", updated 14Jun1996 "efficiency is projected to increase to >40% with the use of advanced materials".

The PEFC has only 51.5 units and the DMFC has only 46.8 units.
Not shown however is that the PEFC operating at ambient air pressure and using hydrogen as its fuel would be the most efficient fuel cell without using a bottoming cycle such as a gas turbine.

Direct alcohol fuel cell (DAFC)

Polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC)

Phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC)

Autotrophic activityin plant cells occur in organelles called ...

The Direct Alcohol Fuel Cell or DAFC appears to be the most promising as a battery replacement for portable applications such as cellular phones and laptop computers.

Molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC)

Others say that the much higher efficiency of the SOFC and its ability to use most any fuel will make it a logical choice for vehicular applications as well.

Thermal temperature vs chemical temperature

The SOFC may well be suited to at least certain vehicles which run more continuously.
Because of the high temperatures of the SOFC, they may not be practical for sizes much below 1,000 watts or when small to midsize portable applications are involved.
Small SOFC will be about 50% efficient [4] from about 15%-100% power.

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Second law analysis of fuel cells

ABSTRACT Fuel cells are an old technology.

Chinese, looking back on history, have been evolving for over 4000 years that many characters have approached aesthetic perfection. They are wonderful designs combining sounds, calligraphy and meanings. The following list is the corresponding Chinese symbols for "photosynthesis".

Note: Just like English many Chinese words may have various meanings and full of nuances, so for accurate translations.

Problems have plagued their introduction.

On the anode side, natural gas is first ejected into a reforming chamber where it draws waste thermal energy from the stack and is converted into hydrogen and carbon monoxide.

Energy concepts are based on the web-book

This results in some of the high temperature waste thermal energy being recycled back into the fuel.
Because the chemical reactions in the SOFC are good at the high operating temperatures, air compression is not required.

There are winners in four categories.

In this type of fuel cell, either methyl DMFC or ethyl DEFC alcohol is not reformed into hydrogen gas but is used directly in a very simple type of fuel cell.

That's whywe call it PHOTOsynthesis.

In the PEFC an external reformer is required to produce hydrogen gas while the SOFC can reform these fuels into hydrogen and carbon monoxide inside the cell.

The gas turbine was invented by John Barber in 1791.

Presently the power density of the DEFC is only 50% of the DMFC but hopefully this can be improved in the future.
Fuel crossing over from the anode to the cathode without producing electricity is one problem that has restricted this technology from its inception.

we need water for photosynthesis).

DC-Nikkor - Lens with defocus control
Noct-Nikkor - High speed lens for available-light photography
PC-Nikkor - Shift lens for perspective control.

organic compound producedduring photosynthesis

This is because it is simple, highly efficient, tolerant to impurities, and can at least partially internally reform hydrocarbon fuels.
The SOFC runs at a red-hot temperature of 700-1000°C.

source of energy forphotosynthesis

Another problem however is that there are often chemical compounds formed during operation that poison the catalyst.
There are already working DMFC prototypes used by the military for powering electronic equipment in the field.

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