Since visible light accounts for about 45% of all solar energy, the maximum achievable energy efficiency for CO2 fixation using solar radiation is approximately 13%.
Bacterial photosynthesis is thought to be a relatively old form of photosynthesis.
2-1), the net reaction, following equations 2-1 through 2-4 is:
CO2 + 10 photons + H2O = CH2O + 1/2O2.(2-5)
Plants and photosynthetic organisms utilize this solar energy in fixing large amounts of CO2 (2x1011 t = 3x1021 J/year), while amounts consumed by human beings are relatively small, (3 x 1020 J/year) (1), representing only 10% of the energy converted during photosynthesis.
Solar energy conversions through the use of photosynthetic microorganisms do not incorporate the use of complex systems or large quantities of factory manufactured products, and indeed have relatively minimal investment and resource requirements.
What plants utilize nitrates/nitrogen for is leaf growth, which in turn maximizes surface area for essential photosynthesis.
Although I have not performed controlled tests, my observations are that nitrate levels that are too low will stunt plant growth and possibly even encourage certain algae (such as green spot), while higher nitrate levels will encourage algae to outperform plants and take over an aquarium.
To a plant, sunbathing is life. Literally. In fact, plants have evolved all sorts of ways to maximize their exposure to the sun while at the same time preventing loss of critically needed water. Plants, as well as some algae and bacteria, perform photosynthesis, a process that involves the capture and use of the Sun’s energy to create biological compounds. Photosynthetic organisms generate these compounds using carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O), and the products they release are oxygen (O2) and carbohydrates as byproducts.
Printout A plant is a member of the kingdom Plantae, a living organism that utilizes photosynthesis, a process in which energy from sunlight is converted to chemical energy (food).
Rain water falling on the leaves of a plant are absorbed into the leaf and utilized to produce food for the plant. Without the water on their leaves photosynthesis is reduced as will be explained shortly.
In the first phase of photosynthesis, cellular protein pigments called chloroplasts are excited by light that propels them into high-energy states. The chloroplasts then transfer this energy through electrons to other protein complexes (read: several proteins stuck together). This group of proteins is called the electron transport chain. The proteins operate similarly to a group of dominoes: after the first one has been pushed, each protein transfers energy to each member along down the line.
Most leaves are flat and contain ; their main function is to convert energy from sunlight into chemical energy (food) through photosynthesis.
- the part of the stem of a plant from which a leaf, branch, or aerial root grows; each plant has many nodes.
Water (H2O) is split in this process, releasing oxygen (O2) and hydrogen ions (H+). The electrons from the electron transport chain combine with these H+ ions and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate ions (NADP+) to form adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and a reduced unit of NADP+, called NADPH (NADP plus an electron, or H). These energy storage forms, ATP and NADPH, are used to convert carbon dioxide (CO2) to build carbohydrates during the second phase of photosynthesis. Plants can then break down these carbohydrates to fuel their existence.
And, once you master your knowledge of photosynthesis, you can relax in the sun with a greater appreciation for the O2 you breathe, knowing that it is produced from the photosynthetic process. Don’t forget the sunscreen—at least SPF 30—you aren’t a plant, after all. Finally, you will realize that the beachside smoothie you are sipping, along with everything else that you have ever eaten, or will ever eat, relies on photosynthesis either directly or indirectly as its source of energy. Unless, of course, you have gotten into the habit of snacking on chemoautotrophs that live in rocks or deep-sea hydrothermal vents. They don't use photosynthesis.
1804:Nicholas Theodore de Saussure publishes experiments on photosynthesis,and described the balanced equation of the process.
The reason this 'watts per gallon' formula can be poor other than comparing LEDs within a specific brand is the efficiencies of so many lights can vary greatly due to design, poor circuitry, low quality emitters, fans, and much more.
With an LED fixture, we can prove our LED efficiency by comparing PAR at the same depth (15" of air is the standard). Using LED fixtures of similar lens angles (120/unlensed to 120, 90 to 90, etc.).
Take the input wattage and divide it by the PAR reading. You will find efficiencies as high as .08 watt of input energy per point of PAR in the AAP Reef White NP 2000 LED to as low as 2.7 watt per point of PAR in the Beamswork EA Timer FSPEC LED. Most of the better LEDs are under .30 watt with most falling in the .4 to .50 watt range such as the Fluval Fresh & Plant 2.0