constructed the first microdistillation device which was capable fractionating a mixture of fatty acid methyl esters (C16 and C18) (). Later on, an improvement of that device was reported ().
Quick AJ found that lipid solvents greatly reduce the coagulant activity of tissue extract (thromboplastin) suggesting that the active substance is a lipoprotein ().
An important component of wax, phthiocerol, is isolated and its global formula determined (
The term "steroids" was coined by () "for the group of compounds comprising the sterols, bile acids, heart poisons, saponins, and sex hormones".
Xanthophylls were named and characterized by Strain HH ().
Sources of Drugs: Biological, marine, mineral and plant tissue cultures as sources of drugs;
Classification of Drugs: Morphological, taxonomical, chemical and pharmacological classification of drugs; Study of medicinally important plants belonging to the families with special reference to: Apocynacae, Solanaceae, Rutacease, Umbelliferae, Leguminosae, Rubiaceae, Liliaceae, Graminae, Labiatae, Cruciferae, Papaveraceae; Cultivation, Collection, Processing and Storage of Crude Drugs: Factors influencing cultivation of medicinal plants, Types of soils and fertilizers of common use. Pest management and natural pest control agents, Plant hormones and their applications, Polyploidy, mutation and hybridization with reference to medicinal plants. Quality Control of Crude Drugs: Adulteration of crude drugs and their detection by organoleptic, microscopic, physical, chemical and biological methods and properties. Introduction to Active Constituents of Drugs: Their isolation, classification and properties.
Systematic pharmacognostic study of the followings:
CARBOHYDRATES and derived products: agar, guar gum acacia, Honey, Isabagol, pectin, Starch, sterculia and Tragacanth; Lipids: Bees wax, Castor oil, Cocoa butter, Codliver oil, Hydnocarpus oil, Kokum butter, Lard, Linseed oil, Rice, Bran oil, Shark liver oil and Wool fat; RESINS: Study of Drugs Containing Resins and Resin Combinations like Colophony, podophyllum, jalap, cannabis, capsicum, myrrh, asafoetida, balsam of Tolu, balsam of Peru, benzoin, turmeric, ginger;
TANNINS: Study of tannins and tannin containing drugs like Gambier, black catechu, gall and myrobalan;
VOLATILE OILS: General methods of obtaining volatile oils from plants, Study of volatile oils of Mentha, Coriander, Cinnamon, Cassia, Lemon peel, Orange peel, Lemon grass, Citronella, Caraway, Dill, Spearmint, Clove, Fennel, Nutmeg, Eucalyptus, Chenopodium, Cardamom, Valerian, Musk, Palmarosa, Gaultheria, Sandal wood; Phytochemical Screening: Preparation of extracts, Screening of alkaloids, saponins, cardenolides and bufadienolides, flavonoids and leucoanthocyanidins, tannins and polyphenols, anthraquinones, cynogenetic glycosides, amino acids in plant extracts; FIBERS: Study of fibers used in pharmacy such as cotton, silk, wool, nylon, glass-wool, polyester and asbestos.
Study of the biological sources, cultivation, collection, commercial varieties, chemical constituents, substitutes, adulterants, uses, diagnostic macroscopic and microscopic features and specific chemical tests of following groups of drugs:
GLYCOSIDE CONTAINING DRUGS: Saponins : Liquorice, ginseng, dioscorea, sarsaparilla, and senega. Cardioactive glycosides: Digitalis, squill, strophanthus and thevetia, Anthraquinone cathartics: Aloe, senna, rhubarb and cascara, Others: Psoralea, Ammi majus, Ammi visnaga, gentian, saffron, chirata, quassia.
ALKALOID CONTAINING DRUGS: Pyridine-piperidine: Tobacco, areca and lobelia. Tropane: Belladonna, hyoscyamus, datura, duboisia, coca and withania. Quinoline and Isoquinoline: Cinchona, ipecac, opium. Indole: Ergot, rauwolfia, catharanthus, nux-vomica and physostigma. Imidazole: Pilocarpus. Steroidal: Veratrum and kurchi. Alkaloidal Amine: Ephedra and colchicum. Glycoalkaloid: Solanum. Purines: Coffee, tea and cola. Biological sources, preparation, identification tests and uses of the following enzymes: Diastase, papain, pepsin, trypsin, pancreatin. Studies of Traditional Drugs: Common vernacular names, botanical sources, morphology, chemical nature of chief constituents, pharmacology, categories and common uses and marketed formulations of following indigenous drugs: Amla, Kantkari, Satavari, Tylophora, Bhilawa, Kalijiri, Bach, Rasna, Punamava, Chitrack, Apamarg, Gokhru, Shankhapushpi, Brahmi, Adusa, Atjuna, Ashoka, Methi, Lahsun, Palash, Guggal, Gymnema, Shilajit, Nagarmotha and Neem. The holistic concept of drug administration in traditional systems of medicine. Introduction to ayurvedic preparations like Arishtas, Asvas, Gutikas, Tailas, Chumas, Lehyas and Bhasmas.
General Techniques of Biosynthetic Studies and Basic Metabolic Pathways/Biogenesis: Brief introduction to biogenesis of secondary metabolites of pharmaceutical importance. Terpenes: monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, diterpenes, and triterpenoids. Carotenoids: a-carotenoids, ß-carotenes, vitamin A, Xanthophylls of medicinal importance. Glycosides: Digitoxin, digoxin, hecogenin, sennosides, diosgenin and sarasapogenin. Alkaloids: Atropine and related compounds, Quinine, Reserpine, Morphine, Papaverine, Ephedrine, Ergot and Vinca alkaloids. Lignans, quassanoids and flavonoids. Role of plant-based drugs on National economy: A brief account of plant based industries and institutions involved in work on medicinal and aromatic plants in India. Utilization and production of phyto-constituents such as quinine, calcium sennosides, podophyllotoxin, diosgenin, solasodine, and tropane alkaloids. Utilization of aromatic plants and derived products with special reference to sandalwood oil, mentha oil, lemon grass oil, vetiver oil, geranium oil and eucalyptus oil. World-wide trade in medicinal plants and derived products with special reference to diosgenin (disocorea), taxol (Taxus sps) digitalis, tropane alkaloid containing plants, Papain, cinchona, Ipecac, Liquorice, Ginseng, Aloe, Valerian, Rauwolfia and plants containing laxatives. Plant bitters and sweeteners. Plant Tissue Culture: Historical development of plant tissue culture, types of cultures, nutritional requirements, growth and their maintenance. Applications of plant tissue culture in pharmacognosy. Marine pharmacognosy: Novel medicinal agents from marine sources. Natural allergens and photosensitizing agents and fungal toxins. Herbs as health foods. Herbal cosmetics. Standardization and quality control of herbal drugs, WHO guidelines for the standardization of herbal drugs.
Plants have evolved diverse adaptive strategies to cope with drought or water deficit conditions, such as stomatal closure, maintenance of root growth and water uptake, and biosynthesis of osmoprotectants. Accumulation of cuticular waxes also contributes to drought resistance. However, it is still unclear how cuticular wax biosynthesis is regulated in response to drought and how it is associated with plant responses to drought at the molecular level. The abscisic acid (ABA)-inducible MYB96 transcription factor plays a role in drought resistance. Notably, it also regulates cuticular wax biosynthesis by binding directly to the promoters of genes encoding fatty acid elongating enzymes, such as KCS, KCR and ECR that constitute a rate-limiting step in cuticular wax biosynthesis. In the myb96-1D mutant that constitutively express the MYB96 gene, many of genes involved in cuticular wax biosynthesis are upregulated and accordingly, cuticular wax accumulation is greatly elevated. In contrast, cuticular wax accumulation is reduced in the myb96-1 mutant, linking drought with cuticular wax biosynthesis. It is evident that the MYB96 transcription factor incorporates drought stress signals into a gene regulatory network that modulates cuticular wax biosynthesis under drought stress conditions, providing a first molecular mechanism by which cuticular wax biosynthesis contributes to drought resistance and protection from pathogenic and mechanical damages as well.
Drought stress induces a wide array of developmental, physiological and morphological changes in plants. Numerous transcription factors, regulatory proteins and enzymes are involved in drought resistance responses and genes encoding the proteins and enzymes are induced under drought conditions.– Molecular and biochemical examination of mutants lacking the genes and transgenic plants overexpressing the genes indicates that major plant responses to drought stress include stomatal closure, optimization of root growth and water uptake, biosynthesis/accumulation of osmoprotectants and metabolic adjustments of hormones and secondary metabolites.– It has been suggested that cuticle, the outermost hydrophobic thin layer of leaves and stems, also contributes to drought resistance.– A few transcription factors have been implicated in regulating cuticular wax biosynthesis in plants.– However, it has been elusive how drought stress signals are incorporated into gene regulatory schemes modulating cuticular wax biosynthesis.
The MYB96 transcription factor plays a role in drought stress responses by modulating lateral root formation via an ABA-auxin signaling crosstalk. Whereas the activation-tagged myb96-1D mutant is resistant to drought, the MYB96-deficient myb96-1 mutant is highly susceptible to drought. It has been shown that the MYB96 transcription factor induces drought resistance by modulating lateral root development and stomatal aperture., In addition, we found that an additional trait is also related with the MYB96-mediated drought stress responses. A global gene expression assay revealed that a major functional category of genes upregulated in the myb96-1D mutant include those encoding wax biosynthetic enzymes and lipid transport proteins. It was also observed that the surface of the myb96-1D leaves and stems were shiny, suggesting that cuticular waxes are accumulated to a high level.
Interestingly, expression of a large portion of genes involved in the cuticular wax biosynthetic pathways is altered in the myb96-1D mutant. For example, genes encoding KCS, KCR, ECR and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydratase (PAS2) are upregulated in the myb96-1D mutant. Those encoding the ECERIFERUM 3 (CER3) and CYTOCHROME P450 96 A1 (CYP96A15/MAH1) enzymes belonging to the decarbonylation pathway and encoding the CER4 and wax ester synthase/diacylglycerol acyltransferase (WSD1) enzymes functioning in the acyl reduction pathway are also induced in the mutant. Furthermore, genes encoding the lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) and ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, such as WHITE-BROWN COMPLEX HOMOLOG PROTEIN 11 (WBC11) acting as a plasma membrane-localized ABC transporter that exports cutin monomers and waxes, are also upregulated in the mutant, indicating that MYB96 regulates both cuticular wax biosynthesis and transport.
As inferred from the gene expression profiling in the myb96-1D and myb96-1 mutants, levels of most cuticular wax components were elevated in the former but reduced in the latter. Of particular interests are alkanes, a major component of gasoline and diesel. Their levels were elevated more than 8-fold in the myb96-1D mutant, which is well consistent with their roles as strong barriers against water movement. We also found that drought stress induces accumulation of aldehydes, primary alcohols and alkanes. Accumulation of the hydrophobic components was significantly reduced in the myb96-1 mutant under drought conditions, further supporting the role of MYB96 in drought-induced cuticular wax biosynthesis. Interestingly, genes encoding cutin monomer biosynthetic enzymes were not regulated by MYB96, and contents of cutin monomers were unaltered in the myb96-1D and myb96-1 mutants. It has been known that biosynthesis of cutin monomers is not related with ABA. It is apparent that although cutin monomers also play a role in drought resistance, the MYB96 transcription factor regulates specifically cuticular wax biosynthesis in an ABA-dependent manner in inducing drought resistance.
It has been estimated that whereas stomatal transpiration is responsible for more than 90% of aerial water loss, only a small portion of aerial water loss from the leaves and stems is mediated by cuticular transpiration. Although the portion of water loss by cuticular transpiration in aerial plant parts is relatively small, its biological significance may not be small. Our data demonstrate that the MYB96 transcription factor regulates both stomatal aperture and cuticular transpiration. Accumulation of cuticular waxes is correlated with enhanced drought resistance. It is therefore likely that although the MYB96-mediated cuticular wax biosynthesis plays a minor role in overall responses to drought, it would be critical under severe drought conditions, when many pathogens and herbivores are propagating. This view is also consistent with the notion that cuticular wax accumulation on the aerial plant parts not only prevents water loss but also provides a physical barrier against pathogen invasions and mechanical damages.