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Polymer-Assisted Solution-Phase (PASP) Suzuki …

In accordance with the traditional manual polymer-bound synthesis, glycosyl acceptor bound to the polymer beads is shaken with an excess of the solution phase glycosyl donor and promoter (). The periodic monitoring of the solution phase by TLC can provide information on whether the glycosyl donor is still remaining in the solution or has been consumed/hydrolyzed. The completeness of the coupling can be determined experimentally by performing test reactions, such as the Kaiser test, or by cleaving the product off the polymer support followed by characterization. Routinely, the coupling step is repeated two or three times using fresh reagents to ensure that all glycosyl acceptor is consumed. Alternatively (or as necessary), the remaining hydroxyls can be capped to ensure that they will not interfere with subsequent steps during the oligosaccharide elongation.

Fluorous synthesis has favorable solution-phase reaction kinetics and overcomes some of the disadvantages of solid-phase synthesis. This new high-throughput technology also has the characteristics of easy reaction monitoring and a broad synthetic scope. The linker strategy developed for solid-phase synthesis can be applied to solution-phase fluorous synthesis by simply replacing the polymer support with a fluorous tag. With the increasing availability of fluorous tagging agents, organic chemists should find additional applications of fluorous technologies in the preparation of small molecules, peptides and oligosaccharides.

A general method for polymer-assisted solution-phase ..

PASP - Polymer Assisted Solution Phase | AcronymAttic

A polymer-assisted solution-phase …

There are only a few non-ionic polymers known for showing thermoresponsivity of UCST-type. Copolymers of acrylamide (AAm) and acrylonitrile (AN) represent one of such thermoresponsive polymers. The present work shows pH-dependent UCST-transitions of this copolymer system. Herein, systematic studies were carried out to show hydrolytic stability and retention of UCST of the copolymer under various conditions. Regeneration of lost UCST-type transitions under extreme pH conditions could be achieved by changing pH, and by addition of electrolytes. Reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) was employed as a tool to synthesize copolymers of AAm and AN. Hydrolysis reactions were carried out intentionally under acidic and alkaline conditions, in order to analyze the chemical stability of the synthesized copolymers as well as to introduce carboxylic groups into the polymer structure. The obtained results showed high tolerance of poly(AAm-co-AN) samples under acidic conditions even after long periods of storage (25 days at pH 3) or after use of pH 0 and increased temperatures (40 °C). In the case of base catalyzed hydrolysis, the thermoresponsive behavior was significantly influenced during hydrolysis in buffer solution of pH 9. Loss and regeneration of the phase transition temperature of these copolymers could be achieved by changing the pH from basic to acidic. Meanwhile, hydrolysis at pH 14 at 40 °C influenced the thermoresponsive behavior and the chemical stability of the polymer, increasing the phase transition temperature over 30 °C. Further, we observed that additives, e.g. formamide can act as a sacrificial agent for providing stable UCST-type transitions even under alkaline conditions as well as at high temperatures (85 °C).

AB - In this article, the development of a novel technique to fabricate spherical polymeric microcapsules by utilizing microfluidic technology is presented. Atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) was employed to synthesize well-defined amphiphilic block copolymers. An organic polymer solution was constrained to adopt the spherical droplets in a continuous water phase at a T-junction microchannel, and the generation of the droplets was studied quantitatively. The flow conditions of two immiscible solutions were adjusted for the successful generation of the polymer droplets. The morphology of the microcapsules was examined. The efficiency of these polymer microcapsules as containers for the storage and controlled release of loaded molecules was evaluated by encapsulating the microcapsules with Congo-red dye and investigating the release performance using temperature controlled UV-VIS spectroscopy.

Synthesis and Characterization of PMMA …

The purification of reaction mixtures is a slow process in organic synthesis, especially during the production of large numbers of analogs and compound libraries. Phase-tag methods such as solid-phase synthesis and fluorous synthesis, provide efficient ways of addressing the separation issue. Fluorous synthesis employs functionalized perfluoroalkyl groups attached to substrates or reagents. The separation of the resulting fluorous molecules can be achieved using strong and selective fluorous liquid-liquid extraction, fluorous silica gel-based solid-phase extraction or high-performance liquid chromatography. Fluorous technology is a novel solution-phase method, which has the advantages of fast reaction times in homogeneous environments, being readily adaptable to literature conditions, having easy intermediate analysis, and having flexibility in reaction scale and scope. In principle, any synthetic methods that use a solid-support could be conducted in solution-phase by replacing the polymer linker with a corresponding fluorous tag. This review summarizes the progress of fluorous tags in solution-phase synthesis of small molecules, peptides and oligosaccharides.

Mio --Polymer-assisted solution-phase methods for chemical library synthesis / Daniel L

In this article, the development of a novel technique to fabricate spherical polymeric microcapsules by utilizing microfluidic technology is presented. Atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) was employed to synthesize well-defined amphiphilic block copolymers. An organic polymer solution was constrained to adopt the spherical droplets in a continuous water phase at a T-junction microchannel, and the generation of the droplets was studied quantitatively. The flow conditions of two immiscible solutions were adjusted for the successful generation of the polymer droplets. The morphology of the microcapsules was examined. The efficiency of these polymer microcapsules as containers for the storage and controlled release of loaded molecules was evaluated by encapsulating the microcapsules with Congo-red dye and investigating the release performance using temperature controlled UV-VIS spectroscopy.

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Poly(N-acryloylglycinamide-co-acrylonitrile) (poly(NAGA-AN)) copolymers were synthesized using reversible-addition-fragmentation transfer polymerization. In contrast to poly(NAGA) the thermoresponsive behavior of poly(NAGA-AN) shows a narrow cooling/heating hysteresis in water with a tunable cloud point, depending on the acrylonitrile amount in polymer. Furthermore, we showed that there is no significant effect of the solution concentration on the cloud point and stable phase transition behavior in electrolyte solutions, which is presumable controlled by forming stable micellar like structures as a result of the block/graft-copolymer structure. This is in contrast to poly(NAGA) which shows a strong concentration dependent cloud point in aqueous solution with a broad cooling/heating hysteresis.

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N2 - In this article, the development of a novel technique to fabricate spherical polymeric microcapsules by utilizing microfluidic technology is presented. Atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) was employed to synthesize well-defined amphiphilic block copolymers. An organic polymer solution was constrained to adopt the spherical droplets in a continuous water phase at a T-junction microchannel, and the generation of the droplets was studied quantitatively. The flow conditions of two immiscible solutions were adjusted for the successful generation of the polymer droplets. The morphology of the microcapsules was examined. The efficiency of these polymer microcapsules as containers for the storage and controlled release of loaded molecules was evaluated by encapsulating the microcapsules with Congo-red dye and investigating the release performance using temperature controlled UV-VIS spectroscopy.

Nanocomposites: synthesis, structure, properties …

The change in thermoresponsive behavior from a single phase transition of upper critical solution temperature (UCST)-type of an acrylamide-acrylonitrile copolymer (AAm-co-AN) to a double responsive behavior (LCST-UCST-type (LCST, lower critical solution temperature)) in water by the introduction of a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) block is highlighted in the present work. The polymer is synthesized in a simple way by free-radical polymerization of acrylamide and acrylonitrile using a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) macro-azoinitiator. The dual thermoresponsive behavior was observed in a wide range of concentrations repeatable for many cycles with very small hysteresis depending upon the ratio of AAm, AN and PEG. Static light scattering (SLS) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) together with turbidity photometry and transmission electron microscopy confirmed a unique phase transition behavior due to the temperature dependent change in the morphology from micelles to agglomerates. The low cytotoxicity and two-in-one thermoresponsive behavior makes the polymer promising for biomedical applications in the future.

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