Novel N-[4- (4`-cyanophenoxy) phenyl] acrylamide (CPAM) has been synthesized. Its structure has been elucidated by elemental analysis, FTIR and 1H NMR as well as 13C NMR. Free radical- initiated polymerization of CPAM was carried out in THF solution using azobisisobutyronitrile as initiator. The effect of monomer and initiator concentrations and reaction temperature on the rate of polymerization (Rp) was studied. The activation energy of the polymerization was calculated (ΔE= 21.1 kJ/mol). The polymer structure was investigated by FTIR and 1H NMR. The properties of the prepared polymer, including thermal behavior, thermal stability, solubility and solution viscosity, were studied.
Shim  carried out modification of zinc oxide using poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). A ZnO/PMMA composite was synthesized by means of polymerization . The majority of microspheres of the MO/polymer composite are produced by coupling of existing polymer chains with the inorganic surface or by polymerization on the phase boundary of inorganic particles. Shim , demonstrated that the stability of dispersion of ZnO in a monomer depends strongly on the nature of its surface, since this provides a precondition enabling dispersion of particles of the medium within drops of monomer and consequently their enclosure in PMMA. The most important condition in the production of the composite is the interphase compatibility between the inorganic compound and the polymer. For this purpose the surface of the inorganic system should be treated with a hydrophobic organic substance. The obtained inorganic-polymer composites form persistent microspheres and combine easily into highly processed polymers. Similar studies have been carried out and published by other researchers [,].
Poly(methyl methacrylate) was also used as a ZnO surface modifier by Hong . Nanoparticles of zinc oxide with a diameter of approximately 30 nm were synthesized by means of homogeneous precipitation followed by calcination. In order to introduce reactive groups onto the ZnO surface, a reaction was carried out between the hydroxyl groups and a silane coupling agent (3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane). Graft polymerization was effected by means of a reaction between the ZnO, containing silanol groups, and the monomer. Tests showed that the polymerization does not alter the crystalline structure of the ZnO nanoparticles. Their dispersion in the organic solvent can greatly improve the graft polymerization of PMMA, and further improvement can be achieved by the addition of other surfactants. Modification of ZnO nanoparticles by grafted PMMA increases the degree of lyophilicity of the inorganic surface and reduces the formation of aggregates. The work of Hong , showed that ZnO nanoparticles grafted with PMMA can increase the thermal stability of polystyrene.
Polymeric nanoparticles are predominantly prepared by wet synthetic routes. Several industrial processes will be described. Emphasis will be placed on the type of polymers and morphology structures that can be synthesized using each process. Controlled radical polymerization will be explored for their ability to provide structural control of polymer chains.