Inview of the semantic and case-marking parallels between causative anddouble object sentences, it makes sense to extend the overt verbmovement in (15a) to the double object case.
Given (10), one might expect embedding a transitive sentence under acausative to result in the case-marking pattern in (11), where theobject of the lower clause is marked with because it is anobject, as in (9b), and the subject of the lower clause is also markedwith by analogy to (10).
Systems of categories are not objectively "out there" in the world but arerooted in people's experience. These categories evolve as learned conceptsof the world — meaning is not an objective truth, but asubjective construct, learned from experience, and language arisesout of the "grounding of ourconceptual systems in shared embodiment and bodily experience".A corollary of this is that the conceptual categories(i.e. the lexicon) will not be identical fordifferent cultures, or indeed, for every individual in the same culture. Thisleads to another debate (see the Whorf-Sapir hypothesis or Eskimo words for snow).
Although our focus in this chapter is on the role of CAUSE in thederivation of double object and related sentences, we assume thatmonotransitive activity verbs like also involve CAUSE andthat (20) is ultimately derived from the structure in (22), roughlyparallel to (19b), with movement of to yielding a form of .
We will use the term 'double object verb' to refer to a VP shell structure associated with three semantic arguments (before substitution), and the term 'double object sentence' to refer to sentences containing such a structure as well as two noun phrases bearing the thematic roles of recipient and theme.
After showing thatcausative verbs take a VP small clause complement, we presentsome striking parallels between causative sentences and double objectsentences in Japanese.
In order to motivate the VP shell treatment of double objectsentences, we begin by discussing ordinary causative sentences (ordinaryin the sense that the causative verb is overt).
When used as inchoatives, the verbs are intransitive and denote amanner of motion, and the subject is the theme argument (expressing theentity undergoing motion).
When used as causatives, the verbs aretransitive, the subject is an agent or cause initiating the motion, andthe theme argument appears as the direct object.