Those energy concepts are real ones that all economies face, and financial measures only reflect them. In the USA, just , Peak Oil was . In 1973, the first oil crisis hit, and have declined since then. Wages were only a reflection of energy consumption, which also peaked in the 1970s for the USA and by that real wages per hour have. The USA’s declining standard of living since the 1970s was minor compared to the devastation inflicted on developing nations. The was initiated by the oil price shocks of the 1970s. Many nations have yet to recover. When the oil price shocks hit, and other measures were inflicted by Western institutions on developing nations. As people such as , those policies were intentionally used to enslave those nations. On the world stage, the self-image promoted by the West is that of blundering do-gooders. As people such as , it is a false narrative designed to hide corrupt motivation from the outset. It is simply more of that . I have written a great deal elsewhere on , how the resembles fairy tales, how professions and industries have , how the , just like genocidal invasions, were always economically motivated, usually to secure energy resources. This essay does not need to belabor those trends, but anybody not can clearly see that the game being played on the global stage is the same one that has been played: economically exploiting others. Because industrialized civilization is beginning to run out of the energy sources that the West used to industrialize, a universal decline in humanity’s standard of living has begun. The USA has transitioned from the land of opportunity to a deindustrializing economy in which bankers and other capitalists are designed to rob one class in favor of another. The aspect of those machinations is painfully obvious. The mind-control techniques that Orwell and Huxley wrote about have been turned into sciences, and there are even “competitions” between their dystopian visions to see .
For the first concept presented above, for conventional renewable energy sources, they are replenished by sunlight or radiation from Earth’s interior; one is fusion, and the other is fission. For so-called non-renewable energy sources, such as hydrocarbons and fissile materials, they are either renewed on timescales so vast that they are effectively non-renewable for humans (such as ), or are “renewed” by the (fissile materials), so could only be renewed with new planetary formation. In mainstream thought, the currently non-renewable energy resources are primarily hydrocarbons (petroleum, coal, and natural gas) and uranium. Much of the debate centers around the definition of oil. What has been called oil for the past 150 years is today called . It is the oil formed by the , and can be mined by drilling wells and extracting it with the conventional methods that have been used since the beginning, and new techniques are periodically invented to increase the rate and total extraction. For conventional oil, humanity has unearthed about 1.1 trillion barrels since 1859, and about as of 2014. Production of conventional oil peaked in 2006 at 25 billion barrels per year and has declined since then. At current production rates, conventional oil will be completely depleted in less than 50 years. About another five billion barrels per year are called unconventional oil, which is called heavy oil, extra heavy oil, and oil sands. Those unconventional oils comprise trillions more barrels, and total and arguably more. For fissile materials, primarily uranium, the peak may have already been reached by 2014, or it . For , in that the peak may have already been reached, or it is only a few decades into the future at most. For coal, may also be only a few decades into the future. Peak extraction usually occurs when about half of the recoverable energy resource has been mined. In summary, the energy resources that have powered the Industrial Revolution are all on their way to largely vanishing in this century. The only resources with seeming viability past this century are coal and unconventional oil, which brings us to the second concept: .
The (c. 201 to 145 mya) and (c. 145 to 66 mya) periods spanned the Golden Age of Dinosaurs. The human fascination with dinosaurs is primarily due to their great size. They were Earth’s largest land animals ever, by far. Huge predators hunted even larger herbivores. Prosauropods, or , were and were the early Jurassic’s dominant herbivorous dinosaurs, but their four-legged descendants, , supplanted them by the mid-Jurassic and sauropods became Earth’s largest land animals ever. Some species may have weighed more than , which would have rivaled the , which is generally considered to be the largest animal that ever lived. The blue whale achieved weight primacy, but the sauropods’ vast dimensions are still awe-inspiring. Some were up to and could reach . Some of the largest sauropods ever lived in the late Jurassic, when they were most numerous, but huge sauropods . A prominent hypothesis is that their tremendous size was a strategy for digesting lower-quality food sources; they could digest food for a longer period as it wound its way through their digestive systems. Their size also discouraged predation and . But their highly efficient air sac breathing system may have been the main reason why they could get so large, particularly in the record-low oxygen Jurassic Period, at least according to .
The Triassic began hot and ended hot, and the Jurassic and Cretaceous were also hot, so staying warm was not a significant issue for dinosaurs. stayed cool by becoming aquatic, and for land-based dinosaurs, features such as plates apparently replaced the sails of for both heating and cooling, and like the synapsid sail, those plates may have also been used for display. Also, like the cliché, many large herbivorous dinosaurs lived near cooling swamps, although the issue has been controversial. Cooling swamps and protective water holes that we see in the tropics today were a major aspect of Mesozoic landscapes. But the thermoregulatory aspect that most work is directed toward today is how dinosaurs kept warm. There is compelling evidence that dinosaurs regulated their body temperature in myriad ways, including internal chemistry. All bipedal animals today are endotherms and they all have four-chambered hearts, as dinosaurs did. , dinosaurs living near the poles (, ), and of dinosaur bones all support the idea that , but one of the more intriguing areas is that of . Like tree rings, bones have seasonal growth rings and they have been read for many dinosaur fossils. They have been used to determine dinosaurian life expectancies. could live to be about 30, giant could live to be 50, and smaller dinosaurs, as with smaller mammals, lived shorter lives. The tiny ones only lived three-to-four years and the mid-sized ones lived seven-to-fifteen years. Growth rates also provide thermoregulation evidence. Tyrannosaurs had juvenile growth spurts and largely stopped growing as adults, and sauropods had growth rates equivalent to today’s whales, which are Earth’s fastest growing animals. But there is also evidence of ectothermic dynamics. The great size of dinosaurs would have led to relatively easy ways to stay warm, as large animals have a greater mass-to-surface area ratio, like the way in which . Also, in the generally hot Mesozoic times, staying warm would have been fairly easy, particularly for huge dinosaurs.
Another energy-related activity probably appeared on a large scale during the reign of dinosaurs: . Although territoriality , , , , and today, it is most common among birds and mammals. Territoriality is primarily about preserving an animal’s energy base from competition, and it is usually a behavior oriented toward others of the same species, which would eat the same food resources and mate with the same potential partners. Just as what scientists call , territorial behavior may go all the way back to the . But the social behaviors apparent in dinosaurs probably also meant territorial behavior, and probably on a scale never experienced before on Earth. Even the suspected display function of implies territorial behavior. All are territorial, and human political units such as are little more than ape territoriality writ large, as peoples protect their energy and mating bases. In light of the (with its apotheosis in the peacock, although, as usual, ), and the phenomenon perhaps goes , along with the discovery of dinosaurian mass nesting sites, herd behaviors, and the like, many scientists believe that .
What is a hypothesis?A hypothesis is defined as “a proposition made as a basis for reasoning, without the assumption of its truth, a supposition made as a starting-point for further investigation from known facts”. (The Concise Oxford Dictionary, 1990) Does your hypothesis have to be true?You don’t have to be certain that your hypothesis is correct. It is a starting point, a statement that you hope to prove true after more research and investigation. That said, after more research you might find you have to modify your hypothesis. Why do you need a hypothesis?A good hypothesis will help you to focus your investigation. It will keep you from “losing the forest for the trees”. As you progress through your investigation you might notice that more and more information comes out. Your hypothesis will ensure that you stay on course in your investigation. The steps in writing an effective hypothesis Step One: Preliminary ResearchYou must review your information so far and decide what information is important and how it will help you develop your hypothesis. Step Two: Write Your HypothesisYour hypothesis is a statement that you intend to prove through your research. It should state your focus. When you have finished with your hypothesis, check it to be sure it has the following criteria: Transitions in Society, Pg.
All of these are examples of hypotheses because they use the tentative word "may." However, their form in not particularly useful. Using the word does not suggest how you would go about proving it. If these statements had not been written carefully, they may not have been a hypotheses at all.
Personal checks have become a less common form of payment in recent years, as credit and debit cards, and even cell phone payments have become more popular. However, checks can still be a useful way to transfer money from one account to another — whether you're paying rent or giving a friend a wedding present. Learning how to write a check properly with dollar and cent amounts is very important to reducing your risk of fraud or check refusal.
55) It is often very easy for a writer to get carried away and include every bit of information about the procedure, including extraneous information like the number of times he\she washed their hands during the experiment.
The scientific method, you’ll probably recall, involves developing a hypothesis, testing it, and deciding whether your findings support the hypothesis. In essence, the format for a research report in the sciences mirrors the scientific method but fleshes out the process a little. Below, you’ll find a table that shows how each written section fits into the scientific method and what additional information it offers the reader.
The inclusion of the purpose (sometimes called the objective) of the experiment often confuses writers. The biggest misconception is that the purpose is the same as the hypothesis. Not quite. We’ll get to hypotheses in a minute, but basically they provide some indication of what you expect the experiment to show. The purpose is broader, and deals more with what you expect to gain through the experiment. In a professional setting, the hypothesis might have something to do with how cells react to a certain kind of genetic manipulation, but the purpose of the experiment is to learn more about potential cancer treatments. Undergraduate reports don’t often have this wide-ranging a goal, but you should still try to maintain the distinction between your hypothesis and your purpose. In a solubility experiment, for example, your hypothesis might talk about the relationship between temperature and the rate of solubility, but the purpose is probably to learn more about some specific scientific principle underlying the process of solubility.
For starters, most people say that you should write out your working hypothesis before you perform the experiment or study. Many beginning science students neglect to do so and find themselves struggling to remember precisely which variables were involved in the process or in what way the researchers felt that they were related. Write your hypothesis down as you develop it—you’ll be glad you did.