The prostaglandins together with the thromboxanes form the prostanoid class of fatty acid derivatives; the prostanoid class is a subclass of eicosanoids.
Its efficacy appears to be related to induction of glutathione S-transferase enzymes, inhibition of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) production, or suppression of oxidative DNA adduct (M(1)G) formation.
For patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease stage III or IV not eligible for arterial reconstruction, Prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) therapy not only has significant beneficial effects over placebo on ulcer healing and pain relief but also increases the rate of patients surviving with both legs after 6-months follow-up.
Prostaglandin E1 may be beneficial for some patients with erectile dysfunction.
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications (NSAIDs) and selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors reduce Prostaglandin E2 production to diminish the inflammation seen in these diseases, but have toxicities that may include both gastrointestinal bleeding and prothrombotic tendencies.
COX2-derived bioactive lipids, including prostaglandin E2, are potent inflammatory mediators that promote tumor growth and metastasis through stimulation of cell proliferation, invasion, and angiogenesis.
Feeding rodents an omega-3 diet was is associated with a reduction in prostate tumor prostaglandin E (PGE)-2 levels.
These results suggest that the 40% ethanol extract of mangosteen has potent inhibitory activities of both histamine release and prostaglandin E2 synthesis.
Curcumin has similar anti-inflammatory action as , but without side effects. Unlike aspirin and other classical inhibitors, curcumin selectively inhibits synthesis of inflammatory prostaglandin thromboxane without affecting prostacyclin synthesis, and curcumin thereby protects against vascular thrombosis. (16-21)
We previously showed pomegranate seed oil and fermented juice polyphenols to retard oxidation and prostaglandin synthesis, to inhibit breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion, and to promote breast cancer cell apoptosis.
There are several dozen prostaglandins, and each seems to have very different and very specific functions.
Prostaglandins, for practical purposes, can be classified in three groups, depending on which fatty acid they were made from.
Series 1 and 3 prostaglandins are considered the "good" prostaglandins, while Series 2 are considered the "bad" prostaglandins.
Series 1 prostaglandins are made from gamma linoleic acid (whose parent fatty acid is linoleic acid).
This series of prostaglandins relax blood vessels, improve circulation, lower blood pressure, decrease inflammation, improve nerve function, regulate calcium metabolism, improve T-cell function, and lastly, prevent the release of something called "arachidonic acid" from cells.
Arachidonic acid, or AA, is what Series 2 prostaglandins, or the "bad" prostaglandins, are made from.
Series 2 prostaglandins promote platelet aggregation (clot formation); inflammation; sodium retention; and may influence heart disease, blood clots, increased cortisol production, etc..
Reducing prostaglandins series 2 is a good option to stay healthier.
Series 3 prostaglandins are formed from the fatty acid found in fish oil: EPA (whose parent essential fatty acid is linolenic acid).
The most important job of Series 3 prostaglandins is to prevent AA from being released by cells, thus preventing the production of bad Series 2 prostaglandins.
As an example, in the area of female function, prostaglandins have an impact on ovarian, uterine, placental, and pituitary function to regulate reproduction.