While the element which gained an electron or electrons after the reaction and made a decrease in oxidation state went through reduction and is the oxidizing agent.
In medical studies, the enhanced oxidizing environment can facilitate the binding of pathogens or antigens to effector cells (a type of lymphocyte that are actively engaged in secreting antibodies) leading to a hyper-responsive innate immune system.
Previous work has shown that an oxidizing environment leads to enhanced release of super-oxide and nitric oxide, activation and translocation of nuclear transcription factor and enhanced production of cytokines (proteins and peptides that are signaling compounds produced by animal cells to communicate with one another).
My many observations in both fresh & saltwater lend to this principle too as to how fish, both freshwater & marine respond both short & long term to oxidizers and/or the lack of a constant source of reduction to balance out oxidative stress.
The objectives of the experiment were to recognize the visible indications of a redox reaction, identify the oxidizing and reducing agents, assign oxidation numbers to the elements in each reaction, and balance the resulting reactions.
This problem is overcome because the heterocysts contain only part of the photosynthetic apparatus,termed photosystem I, which can be used to generate energy (as ATP).
Here are a few reducers, in other words, elements or processes that can transfer electrons to another substance;Magnesium, Calcium, Sodium, and the process of Photosynthesis involves both oxidation and reducing.
Superoxide and other ROS are produced in the mitochondria during oxidative phosphorylation as a normal byproduct of aerobic respiration in fish (and other animals).
Superoxide is formed by the 1-electron reduction of molecular oxygen, resulting in a free radical. However ROS are not intrinsically destructive; on the contrary, increasing evidence shows that they play necessary roles in normal signal transduction.
In low concentrations, they are implicated as second messengers primarily through inhibition of phosphatases, acting downstream of effectors such as platelet-derived growth factor, epidermal growth factor, tumor necrosis factor agonists, and interleukin.
In higher concentrations, however, they take on pathophysiological roles. ROS affect the oxidative modification of diverse molecules, including DNA, proteins, lipids, and sugars, potentially leading to toxicity.
I have mostly discussed Redox Reduction and its misunderstood importance, however there does need to be a balance between reduction and oxidation for proper chemistry within a fish or most all living animal organisms.
The best current research seems to indicate a Redox reading of approximately +125 (freshwater) as a balanced Redox with optimum electromagnetism of the water.
However Redox Potential is often in flux, so I personally believe following healthy aquatic husbandry methods (that consider the affect on Redox) is an aquarists best bet in maintaining this balance. This includes a higher Redox (as high as +350) when oxidation is necessary due to high organic decomposition.
Bio Chemistry as it relates to Redox Balance:
There are enzymes within a body that are reactive oxygen species (ROS) and others that are reactive nitrogen species (RNS). A disturbance in the oxidationreduction state of the cell, in which ROS production exceeds antioxidant defenses, is called oxidative stress.
By analogy, nitrosative stress is an impairment in nitric oxide (NO) signaling caused by increased amounts of RNS, which may be caused by, or associated with, a disturbance in the Redox state. As discussed earlier, free radicals are highly reactive molecules with unpaired electrons.
Spring waters, which are considered to be the most clean, according to the ecological criteria, are filtered through the rocks and subjected to the oxidation and reduction, sorption and catalytic influence.
As a rule, they are mineralized and include non-volatile organic substances, which are detected by the permanganate oxidability (expressed by oxidability by potassium permanganate and potassium dichromate).
Put more bluntly; only water that has been naturally filtered by percolation deep into the earth, heated under pressure to super steam at the mantle and re-imprinted by the clays, gravels and minerals that it passes by on its way to the surface at 4C is fully mature and full of useful electromagnetic energy.
Energy of oxidation by way of degrading organic compounds is absorbed during reduction chemical transformations. Excess ions of the heavy elements transform into insoluble, inert, nontoxic forms. The concentration of ions of light elements are then stabilized.
Water organisms, live in such water, and land animals drink it.
The problem begins when either ROS (oxidation) or RNS (Reduction) get out of balance and unfortunately in closed aquarium or pond systems .
An aquarium with poor circulation and low oxygen levels can swing towards poor oxidation, Reduction is halted by the fish body inability to reduce these superoxides.
Simultaneously all three of these processes proceed to self-purify natural water on the basis of the chemical reactions of oxidation and reduction.
Living organisms such as fish are adapted to NOT "perfectly clean water", but to ecologically clean water with definite content of organic and inorganic compounds, micro-admixtures, Magnetized ions, and even bacteria or saprophytes (saprophytes are an organism that grows on and derives its metabolic energy from dead or decaying organic matter; such as most fungi).
The range of mentioned components of ecologically clean water is the integral result of oxidation and reduction self-purification of water.