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Global Rise of Education - Our World in Data

A good deal of recent discussion among social scientists concerned with immigration is about the disadvantages faced by immigrants who enter the American labor force with much-lower levels of skills than those possessed by the typical native white worker. Among contemporary immigrant groups, by far the most important example is the Mexicans. The challenges faced by such an immigrant today are often contrasted with the challenges faced by low-skilled immigrants who entered the U. S. during the great immigration wave of 1890-1920—most notably Poles, other Slavs, and Italians. In articles published at the end of 2001 in the Christopher Jencks drew on research by George Borjas to argue that the wage ratios of Mexicans compared to relevant US workers today were far worse than the comparable wage ratios of "new" immigrants compared to native white workers in 1910. Jencks argues for a reconsideration of immigration policy, especially regarding Mexico. This paper explores the nature of the early evidence in detail. A good deal of ambiguity is involved in the materials, but tests made to date do not contradict Jencks?s conclusions about wage ratios during the earlier immigration. The paper draws evidence from IPUMS census datasets from 1900, 1910, 1940, and 1950.

This paper focuses on the persistence of hardship from middle age to old age. Proposed status maintenance models suggest that stratification of economic status occurs over the life course (for example, little mobility is seen within the income distribution). Some studies have found evidence to support this, but none have looked at broader measures of well-being. Using 29 years (1968–96) of data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID), the author employs hypothesis tests (t-tests) and logistic regression techniques to examine the relationship between middle-age chronic hardships and adverse old-age outcomes. In almost every case, individuals who experience middle-age chronic hardships are significantly (statistically) more likely to experience adverse old-age outcomes.

A plan for significantly increasing the number of jobs available to African Americans.

# School enrollment and attendance # Context

School enrollment and attendance are two important measures of educational attainment

In contrast to current checklist-based SP assessment procedures, that focus primarily on assessing physical exam maneuvers or history taking, the proposed hypothesis-driven assessment procedure brings together all key elements of physical diagnosis, namely generating a limited set of diagnostic hypotheses, anticipating discriminating findings, performing maneuvers and appreciating the findings, and interpreting the finding by proposing a working diagnosis. The assessment task requires students to think in action, while gathering the data. The findings from the scientific literature that were used to build this assessment procedure, namely co-selection, prototypes, discriminating features, and transfer, provide a strong conceptual framework for the proposed procedure. By implementing this approach as an assessment procedure, it also automatically guides learning (knowing that students learn what they are assessed on). It promotes contextualized, integrated, and meaningful learning, and provides, as advocated by medical educators, a more parsimonious, selective approach to physical diagnosis, focusing on key, discriminating findings as well as an array of structural patterns (diagnostic sets) that can facilitate transfer when students go from pre-clinical to clinical settings and from patient to patient. The procedure is based on 18 complaints, 145 physical exam maneuvers, and 59 diagnostic alternatives, a sound foundation upon which students can build their physical diagnosis. The student and class profiles generated from this procedure provide a well-organized and detailed framework for providing feedback to students and educators, where various sources of strengths and weaknesses in physical diagnosis can be parceled out, such as distinguishing anticipation errors from execution or interpretation errors (an important asset in an era of reducing medical errors). An example of a student profile following a case would include: "Good anticipation of clinical findings, some faulty physical exam maneuvers, and incorrect diagnosis." Finally, the assessment procedure and the various scores derived from the observations, such as anticipation scores, diagnostic interpretation scores, and overall physical exam scores (8 profiles), offer the possibility of better distinguishing among levels of expertise. The purpose of this proposed project is to begin to validate this hypothesis-driven assessment procedure for physical diagnosis of medical students and residents. Both a three-step and a four-step procedure will be studied, where the four-step procedure includes generating hypotheses while the three-step procedure does not. Six pilot testing and validation studies are proposed, each testing various aspects of construct validity and reliability:

There have been a number of estimates of the total amount of funding provided by the Federal Reserve to bail out the financial system. For example, Bloomberg recently claimed that the cumulative commitment by the Fed (this includes asset purchases plus lending) was $7.77 trillion. As part of the Ford Foundation project “A Research and Policy Dialogue Project on Improving Governance of the Government Safety Net in Financial Crisis,” Nicola Matthews and James Felkerson have undertaken an examination of the data on the Fed’s bailout of the financial system—the most comprehensive investigation of the raw data to date. This working paper is the first in a series that will report the results of this investigation.

Black-white wage gaps expand with rising wage …

This article outlines Breen and Goldthorp's theory of educational attainment and relative risk aversion hypothesis, and then, tests how well relative risk aversion explains the class differences in educational attainment in Japan.
According to the relative risk aversion hypothesis, young people and their parents want them to acquire a level of education that will allow them to avoid downward social mobility, and thus, the members of different classes pursue different levels of education. As a result of these processes, class differences in educational attainment persist. The author analyzed the Japanese panel data collected in 1979 and 2006 to test this hypothesis, and found that (1)a father's occupation affected his expectation of his child's occupational attainment, (2)his expectation of his child's occupational attainment affected his expectation of his child's educational attainment, and (3)his expectation of his child's educational attainment had an effect on the actual educational attainment of his child. However, these processes are rather independent of the processes by which a father's occupation affected his expectation of occupational and educational attainment for his child.
These results suggest that the effects of occupational expectation on educational expectation and of educational expectation on educational attainment are not intermeditative but additive in the Japanese society. As a result, Breen and Goldthorpe's claim that relative risk aversion is a central factor to explain the effect of class on educational attainment was not supported.

What latest top cannabis research tells us - Dr

AB - The purpose of this study is to clarify the roles played by individual differences and goal origin in the goal setting process. In order to accomplish this objective this study (a) briefly reviews the existing empirical evidence on individual differences in the goal setting literature, (b) develops a model of the goal-setting process that specifies different roles for individual differences depending upon goal origin, and (c) tests hypotheses generated by this model in a laboratory setting. The results indicate that under self-set conditions variables associated with self-perceptions of task-specific ability, but not generalized self-esteem, are related to the difficulty of the goals selected, with more difficult goals being set by individuals high in task-specific ability perceptions. Furthermore, when goals are self-set, regardless of individual differences, the expectancy and valence of goal attainment tends to be high and invariant relative to assigned conditions (i.e., the motivation to pursue the goal is high), and a strong goal difficulty-performance relationship is in evidence for all subjects. Under assigned goal conditions, individual differences determine the reaction to the assigned goal. Individuals high in task-specific self-esteem have stronger expectancies for attaining the goal relative to those low in this trait; and, individuals high in generalized self-esteem exhibit higher valence for goal attainment than those low in generalized self-esteem. In assigned conditions, there was a positive goal difficulty-performance relationship only for individuals high in generalized self-esteem. Some evidence actually suggested that for subjects low in generalized self-esteem, it is better to assign low goals. Low goals seem to increase the self-perceived task-specific ability of these subjects which relates positively with performance.

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Big-fish–little-pond effect - Wikipedia


Expectancy Theory of Motivation - Victor Vroom

N2 - The purpose of this study is to clarify the roles played by individual differences and goal origin in the goal setting process. In order to accomplish this objective this study (a) briefly reviews the existing empirical evidence on individual differences in the goal setting literature, (b) develops a model of the goal-setting process that specifies different roles for individual differences depending upon goal origin, and (c) tests hypotheses generated by this model in a laboratory setting. The results indicate that under self-set conditions variables associated with self-perceptions of task-specific ability, but not generalized self-esteem, are related to the difficulty of the goals selected, with more difficult goals being set by individuals high in task-specific ability perceptions. Furthermore, when goals are self-set, regardless of individual differences, the expectancy and valence of goal attainment tends to be high and invariant relative to assigned conditions (i.e., the motivation to pursue the goal is high), and a strong goal difficulty-performance relationship is in evidence for all subjects. Under assigned goal conditions, individual differences determine the reaction to the assigned goal. Individuals high in task-specific self-esteem have stronger expectancies for attaining the goal relative to those low in this trait; and, individuals high in generalized self-esteem exhibit higher valence for goal attainment than those low in generalized self-esteem. In assigned conditions, there was a positive goal difficulty-performance relationship only for individuals high in generalized self-esteem. Some evidence actually suggested that for subjects low in generalized self-esteem, it is better to assign low goals. Low goals seem to increase the self-perceived task-specific ability of these subjects which relates positively with performance.

g factor (psychometrics) - Wikipedia

This paper discusses support for, and opposition to, racial classification of European immigrants among high-level researchers at both the United States Immigration Commission of 1907–11 (the Dillingham Commission) and the Census Bureau during those same years. A critical distinction must be made between the Commission members—political appointees who mostly supported some form of restriction at the time of their appointment—and the top research staff, whose views were remarkably wide ranging. Moreover, even staff members committed to a racialized outlook—such as Daniel Folkmar, author of the Commission’s infamous Dictionary of Races and Peoples—deserve a closer look than historians have given them; for example, Folkmar and his superior on the staff had requested commentary from Franz Boas, who was then emerging as the most prestigious academic critic of racial theories (theories that assume group differences in behavior arise from biological endowments). Another feature of the narrative concerns the surprising number of staff who transferred from the Commission to the Census Bureau to work on the 1910 Census. Debates continued at the Bureau as well, this time over how to present the results of the new “mother tongue” question, which had been introduced to the Census questionnaire in response to pressure for a European “race” question. Indeed, Folkmar was also the chief author of the Census Bureau report on the mother-tongue data.

Predicting Prejudicial Attitudes: the Importance of …

Since the early 1990s, the number of papers estimating econometric models and using other quantitative techniques to try to understand different aspects of the Chinese economy has mushroomed. A common feature of some of these studies is the use of neoclassical theory as the underpinning for the empirical implementations. It is often assumed that factor markets are competitive, that firms are profit maximizers, and that these firms respond to the same incentives that firms in market economies do. Many researchers find that the Chinese economy can be well explained using the tools of neoclassical theory. In this paper, we (1) review two examples of estimation of the rate of technical progress, and (2) discuss one attempt at modeling investment. We identify their shortcomings and the problems with the alleged policy implications derived. We show that econometric estimation of neoclassical models may result in apparently sensible results for misinformed reasons. We conclude that modeling the Chinese economy requires a deeper understanding of its inner workings as both a transitional and a developing economy.

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