. Main components of photosynthetic and respiratory electron transport system in cyanobacteria. PSII—photosystem II, PQ—plastoquinone pool, cyt—cytochrome, PC—plastocyanin, PSI—photosystem I, Fd—ferredoxin, FNR—ferredoxin: NADP+ oxidoreductase, Hyd—hydrogenase, SDH—succinate dehydrogenase, NDH-1—NADPH: quinone oxidoreductase, COX—cytochrome oxidase.
Respiration is a series of reactions in which 6-carbon glucose is oxidised to form . The energy released due to the oxidation of is used to synthesize ATP from adenosine diphosphate or ADP and inorganic phosphate or Pi.
The protons then move down the concentration gradient from the space between the inner and outer membranes back into the matrix. However, they can only move back across via an enzyme embedded in the inner membrane. This enzyme is called ATP synthase. The protons are transported back into the matrix through the channels of ATP synthase and as they do so they release energy. This energy is then used by ATP synthase to convert ADP into ATP. Since the electrons come from previous oxidation reactions of cell respiration and the ATP synthase catalyses the phosphorylation of ADP into ATP, this process is called oxidative phosphorylation. Chemiosmosis is necessary for oxidative phosphorylation to work.
Spatial separation is achieved by filamentous cyanobacteria that form heterocyst, a specialized type of cells that harbor nitrogenase. Typical filamentous nitrogenfixing cyanobacterium contains 5% - 10% heterocysts . Thick cell wall prevents quick penetration of external CO2 into heterocysts; lack of PS II does not allow for internal production of molecular oxygen whereas a high respiration rate keeps oxygen concentration very low and produces much needed ATP for nitrogenase.
Inside the inner membrane of the mitochondria there is a chain of electron carriers. This chain is called the electron transport chain. Electrons from the oxidative reactions in the earlier stages of cell respiration pass along the chain. NADH donates two electrons to the first carrier in the chain. These two electrons pass along the chain and release energy from one carrier to the next. At three locations along the chain, enough energy is released to produce ATP via ATP synthase. ATP synthase is an enzyme that is also found in the inner mitochondrial membrane. FADH2 also donates electrons but at a later stage than NADH. Also, enough energy is released at only two locations along the chain by electrons from FADH2. The ATP production relies on energy release by oxidation and it is therefore called oxidative phosphorylation.
This happens in the plants chloroplasts
Aerobic Cellular Respiration
This is a process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen
Aerobic Cellular Respiration Equation
The reactants of photosynthesis are: Light, Water, and Carbon dioxide.
Cellular respiration is the process of breaking down food molecules to obtain energy and store it in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) molecules.
Plant cells, after creating sugar molecules through photosynthesis, undergo cellular respiration to create ATP molecules.
ATP generated in the light reactions is then available foruse in sugar synthesis. When sugars are burned for energy in respiration,carbon dioxide is released. The dark reactions of photosynthesis(see figure 5.10) are the reverse of this process, and requirethe input of large amounts of energy from ATP. These reactionsare the source of most energy used by humans. Exceptions includenuclear, photovoltaic, and wind power.
Light Dependent Reactions
The reactants of cellular respiration are: Oxygen and Glucose (Sugar)
Electron Transport Chain
ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) is one of the principal chemical compounds that living things use to store and release energy
ADP (Adenosine Diphosphate) is an important organic compound in metabolism and is essential to the flow of energy in cells
3 Phosphate groups
Function and Equation for Respiration
1. Click on the following links and use the information provided to write a definition of cellular respiration in your own words.2. Identify which living things carry out the process of respiration.3. Write the chemical equation for cellular respiration. Label the reactants and products. Where have you seen something like this equation before? Explain.4. How does the equation for cellular respiration compare with the equation for photosynthesis?5. What is ATP? Why is it an important product of cellular respiration?6. Using the same link from #5, write the chemical equation for the breakdown of ATP. Does the reaction release energy (exothermic) or absorb energy (endothermic)? Support your answer.7. Write the equation for the synthesis of ATP. Does the reaction release energy (exothermic) or absorb energy (endothermic)? Support your answer.
Use the following link to answer questions 8-10:
8. What is the main site of respiration in the cell?9. Make a sketch of the respiration organelle and label its parts.10. What energy molecules are produced in this respiration organelle?11. What is the difference between aerobic and anaerobic cellular respiration?12. Click on the �Cellular respiration� link and scroll down to fermentation. What is lactic acid fermentation? Where does it occur?13. What does a build up of lactic acid cause?14. What is alcoholic fermentation?15. In what industry is alcoholic fermentation important?16. Which produces the larger amount of energy � aerobic or anaerobic respiration? Support your answer with information from the reading.
17. Write a summary of cellular respiration. In your response: