For multi-location proteins, mGOASVM, HybridGO-Loc, mPLR-Loc and R3P-Loc is designed to predict 12 subcellular locations of multi-label plant proteins. The 12 subcellular locations include: (1) cell membrane; (2) cell wall; (3) chloroplast; (4) cytoplasm; (5) endoplasmic reticulum; (6) extracellular; (7) golgi apparatus; (8) mitochondrion; (9) nucleus; (10) peroxisome; (11) plastid; and (12) vacuole. Note
For multi-location proteins, R3P-Loc is designed to predict 22 subcellular locations of multi-label eukaryotic proteins. The 22 subcellular locations include: (1) acrosome; (2) cell membrane; (3) cell-wall; (4) centrosome; (5) chloroplast; (6) cyanelle; (7) cytoplasm; (8) cytoskeleton; (9) endoplasmic reticulum; (10) endosome; (11) extracellular; (12) golgi apparatus; (13) hydrogenosome; (14) lysosome; (15) melanosome; (16) microsome; (17) mitochondrion; (18) nucleus; (19) peroxisome; (20) spindle pole body; (21) synapse; and (22) vacuole.
Most of the biological activities performed by proteins occur in organelles. An organelle is a cellular component or subcellular location within a cell that has specific functions. The figure above illustrates some organelles in a typical eukaryotic cell. In eukaryotic cells, major organelles include cytoplasm, mitochondria, chloroplast, nucleus, extracellular space, endoplasmic reticulum (ER), Golgi apparatus and plasma membrane. Cytoplasm takes up most of the cell volume where most of the cellular activities, such as cell division and metabolic pathways, occur. Mitochondrion is a membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic cells. It is mainly responsible for supplying energy for cellular activities. Chloroplast is an organelle existing in plant or algal cells. Its role is to conduct photosynthesis to store energy from sunlight. Nucleus is a membrane-enclosed organelle containing most of the genetic materials for a cell. Its main function is to control the activities of the cell by regulating gene expression. Extracellular space refers to the space outside the plasma membrane, which is occupied by fluid. ER is a type of organelle that forms an interconnected membranous network of cistemae which serves the functions of folding protein molecules in cistemae and transporting synthesized proteins to Golgi apparatus. Golgi apparatus is an organelle which is particularly important in cell secretion. Plasma membrane or cell membrane is a biological membrane that separates the intracellular environment from extracellular space. Its basic function is to protect the cell from its surroundings.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as peroxides and free radicals are the highly reactive products of many normal cellular processes, including the mitochondrial reactions that produce ATP and oxygen metabolism. Examples of ROS include the hydroxyl radical OH, H2O2, and superoxide (O 2 − O 2 −). Some ROS are important for certain cellular functions, such as cell signaling processes and immune responses against foreign substances. Free radicals are reactive because they contain free unpaired electrons; they can easily oxidize other molecules throughout the cell, causing cellular damage and even cell death. Free radicals are thought to play a role in many destructive processes in the body, from cancer to coronary artery disease.
Ensure to leave spaces for mitochondria, and do not overcrowd the cell.
Chloroplasts are the food-making organelles of the plant cell since they are the site for photosynthesis.
They are covered in small spherical bodies called oxysomes.
Mitochondria do not contain temporary stores of starch or lipids.
Mitochondria do not contain photosynthetic pigments.
Cloroplasts are biconvex in shape.
Chloroplasts contain photosynthetic pigments that are located in photosystems.
They have photosystems that are located in the thylakoids which are made up of a double membrane called lamellae.
Chloroplasts may contain stores of starch and lipids.
Although they do have functional similarities, fundamentally mitochondria and chloroplasts carry out the opposite processes.
Chloroplasts are concerned with photosynthesis whereas mitochondria re concerned with aerobic respiration.
The entire process of photosynthesis is carried out in the chloroplasts whereas this is not the case for aerobic respiration in the mitochondria.
The first stage of photosynthesis occurs in the thylakoid membranes and the products are transported into the stroma whereas it is the opposite for aerobic respiration in the matrix.
The main coenzyme used in photosynthesis is NADP whereas in aerobic respiration it is NAD.
Variables: The variables that might affect the rate of photosynthesis in this experiment are: Temperature: When the temperature rises so does the rate of photosynthesis; this is because as the temperature around the plant rises the enzymes controlling photosynthesis inside the chloroplasts heat up and start moving around faster, the fast moving molecules collide with other fast moving enzymes causing them to react....
While oxygen is necessary for the process of respiration, glucose plays a crucial role in the diet; and that explains why the photosynthesis is important for all the lifeforms on the planet - including humans.