Epidemiological evidence indicates that adherence to a vegetarian diet for morethan two decades can increase lifespan 3.6 years [AMERICAN JOURNALOF CLINICAL NUTRITION 78(Suppl):526S-532S (2003)].
Higher HDL-cholesterol, lower triglycerides, lower insulin-resistance & prevalence of diabetes, good cerebral perfusion, good glucose metabolism, good cardiovascular function and good endocrine function of older peoplewho engage in regular vigorous aerobic exercise are nearly to the level of that seen in their younger counterparts — in sharp contrast to their sedentary peers [NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE328:533-537 (993); AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY 268:E484-E490(1995); JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN GERIATRIC SOCIETY 38:123-128 (1990)].
Using as a measure of glycoxidation, no significant variations wereobserved — but results for tissues other than skin might have been different [JOURNALSOF GERONOTOLOGY 58A(6):508-516 (2003)].
Monocytes from elderly humans have a greatly reduced capacity to produce thecytokine InterLeukin−1 (IL−1) and the toxic free radicals that macrophages use to kill foreign or cancerous cells [THE JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY154:832-843 (1995)].
Immune function is very important for the elderly because infection causes an increasing percentage of deaths for those over 80 years of age [JOURNALS OF GERONTOLOGY 52A(1):B67-B77 (1997)] and AMERICAN JOURNAL OFMEDICINE; 114:365-369 (2003)].
An estimated 1−2% of oxygen used by mitochondria will normally "leak" from the respiratory chain to form superoxide [JOURNAL OF NEUROCHEMISTRY 59:1609-1623 (1992) & JOURNAL OF INTERNAL MEDICINE 238:405-421 (1995)].
An alternate hypothesis, however,claims that the mtDNA genes are of value in providing rapid local synthesis of proteinsrequired for oxidative phosphorylation.
Declines in functional mitochondria &CoQ10 with age is most damaging to those organs that have the highest energydemands per gram of tissue, namely: the heart, kidney, brain, liver andskeletal muscle, in that order [JOURNAL OF INTERNAL MEDICINE 238:405-421 (1995)].
But one of the Complex V (ATPase) mtDNA-coded proteins has been successfully synthesized in the nucleus andutilized in the mitochondria for a mammalian cell [REJUVENATION RESEARCH;Zullo,SJ; 8(1):18-28 (2005)] giving hope to the idea that all 13 mtDNAproteins might eventually be moved to the nucleus.
An experiment in yeast that improved the accuracy of mitochondrial protein synthesis demonstrated a 27% longer mean life span [JOURNAL OF GERONTOLOGY 57A(1):B29-B36 (2002)].
(There is no other cellular DNA outside the nucleus apart from the DNA of mitochondria.) Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in humans are circular strands of 16,569 nucleic acids thatcode for 37 genes — 22 transfer RNAs, 2 ribosomal RNAs and 13 transmembraneproteins.
(When lysosomes become bloated with similar material due to disease processes, it is called ceroid.)The "error catastrophe" theory of aging proposed that accumulating damage to synthesizedproteins resulted in damage to the machinery of synthesis itself, leading to an escalating viscious circleof malfunctioning cellular components.
Thymine-cytosine and cytosine-cytosine are the most mutagenic CPDs [JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF DERMATOLOGY; Marrot,L; 58(5 Suppl 2):S139-S148 (2008)].
Increasing insulin levelsassociated with aging and type−2 diabetes stimulates nitric oxide synthetase resulting in [THE INTERNATIONAL JOURNALOF BIOCHEMISTRY & CELL BIOLOGY 34:1340-1354 (2002)].
By 1994, the Western Hemisphere was fullyimmunized and polio ceased to occur(a good thing that was 40 years overdue -- it happened mostly because ofinternational philanthropy, not "good local government" in most of the Latin American nations).