Transcription is the copying of in the nucleus into pre-mRNA. For a to be synthesised into a protein it needs certain pathways within cells to occur which causes binding of transcription factors to the on DNA. There are 3 parts to transcription, chain initiation, chain elongation and chain termination the chain initiation and termination are detailed below due to it being different in different types of organism.
Protein synthesis is the creation of via and then on a , involving , , , and . It occurs in both and cells although there are certain differences like splicing occurs in different places and of course there isn't a in so no movement between membranes is involved to get the mRNA strand out of the cell.
Each gene acts as a code, or set of instructions, for making a particular protein. Some of these proteins control the cell's internal chemistry. They tell the cell what to do, give the organism its characteristics, and determine the way its body works.