The Effects of Elevated Carbon Dioxide Levels on the Transpiratoin Rates of Zonal Geranium PlantsHow Does the Introduction of NaF Affect the Rate of Photosynthesis in Isolated Chloroplasts?
The Effects of pH Levels and Phosphorous on the Photosynthesis Process of Aquatic PlantsStudy the coniferous spruce tree (Picea glauca as the species of choice) by measuring its lateral and sub-lateral branch angles in order to see how it collects sunlight from various angles on its south-facing side.
Most leaves are flat and contain ; their main function is to convert energy from sunlight into chemical energy (food) through photosynthesis.
- the part of the stem of a plant from which a leaf, branch, or aerial root grows; each plant has many nodes.
Printout A plant is a member of the kingdom Plantae, a living organism that utilizes photosynthesis, a process in which energy from sunlight is converted to chemical energy (food).
Immediatelyafter exposure to 14CO2, the plant's photosynthetic tissue iskilled by immersing it in boiling alcohol, and all of the biochemical reactions cease.
Animals that consume plants also make use of this energy, as do those that consume those that consume plants, and so on to the top of the food chain.
As important a job as making all of the world's food is, there's another vital function that photosynthesis performs: It generates the oxygen that oxygen-breathing animals need to survive.
We exhale the carbon dioxide that plants need for photosynthesis.
Many scientists contributed to the discovery and understanding of photosynthesis throughout the ages; in this page are outlined some of those crucial milestone experiments that contributed to this effort.
Jan Baptista van Helmont, Flemish physician, chemist, and physicist, in the 1600s carried out a famous experiment by growing a willow tree in a pot for five years.
Effect of different colors of light on the rate of photosynthesisThe effect of different lights on plant growth: incandescent light, fluorescent light, sunlight and black light.
They are the site of photosynthesis but also of many other essential metabolic pathways, such as syntheses of amino acids, vitamins, lipids, and pigments.
The effects of various pH levels on the photosynthesis process of the aquatic plant elodeaThe effects of phosphorous on the photosynthesis of aquatic plantsDoes light affect stem growth?
Follow in the steps of van Helmont, John Woodward, Joseph Priestley and Jan Ingenhousz and discover photosynthesisIs plant growth affected by exposure to ultraviolet light?
Purpose After realizing that foreign proteins can build up to high levels in transformed tobacco chloroplasts, scientists tried to figure out what regions of the gene can attain max expression (converting info to mRNA and then the protein)
can be effected by genes located up and downstream Engineering of the abundance Vectors can be constructed to delete or mutate every region of the chloroplast genome because of the natural homologous recombination that occurs in chloroplasts
Through process of elimination, scientists have figured out what parts are essential for photosynthesis in certain plants Probing photosynthesis Can improve photosynthesis efficiency by modifying RuBisCo genes in plants to increase catalytic activity, or reducing photorespiration Altering vascular plant RuBisCO Because large amounts of RuBisCO is needed for photosynthesis, direct placement and optimized synthesis in the plastome is needed for enough conversion of info to the mRNA and for the protein
Varies with the type of plant working with Potential for engineering of photosynthesis Inability to obtain regenerated homoplasmic monocotyledonous transplastomic plants
Absence of a method to obtain regenerated fertile Arabidopsis transplastomic plants
Cannot use the surplus Arabidopsis (small plants related to cabbage and mustard) genetic and genomic resources available Limitations Basics How?
Can be achieved by homologous recombination between the transformation vector and the plastid genome via:
Biolistic bombardment of plant tissue with a transformation vector
Polyethylene glycol-mediated transformation of protoplasts Promoters Plastid transcription happens because of two RNA polymerase:
Nuclear-encoded polymerase (NEP): performs transcription which ultimately produces the mRNA encoding ribosomal proteins used in PEP
Plastid-encoded polymerase (PEP): initiates transcription specifically in the plastid genome
For engineering photosynthesis, promoters active in specific tissues or in response to light are important for regulating modified or induced genes
Found that choosing the insertion site in the plasmid genome can result in high levels of mRNA and high levels of protein expressed from the transgene.
In respiration energy is released fromsugars when electrons associated with hydrogen are transported to oxygen (theelectron acceptor), and water is formed as a byproduct. The mitochondriause the energy released in this oxidation in order to synthesize ATP. Inphotosynthesis, the electron flow is reversed, the water is split (not formed),and the electrons are transferred from the water to CO2 and in theprocess the energy is used to reduce the CO2 into sugar. Inrespiration the energy yield is 686 kcal per mole of glucose oxidized to CO2,while photosynthesis requires 686 kcal of energy to boost the electrons from thewater to their high-energy perches in the reduced sugar -- light provides thisenergy.