Magnetic nanoparticles provide a unique nanosystem for various smart therapy applications because of their biocompatibility, their nanostructures which can be prepared controllably to match with the interest of study and, specifically, their responses to an external magnetic field. Interests in utilizing magnetic nanoparticles for biomedical treatments originate from their external controllability of transportation and movement inside biological objects and magnetic heat generation which provide tremendous advantages for targeted drug delivery and controlled drug release as well as magnetic hyperthermia. Recent progress in synthesis and functionalization has led to the formation of various functional magnetic nanoparticles with controlled magnetic properties based on controlling their particle size, shape and composition. In this review, we focus on the synthesis, protection and functionalization of iron oxide-based magnetic nanoparticles in order to control magnetic properties of nanostructured systems. We also highlight the recent advances in the development of multifunctional therapeutic nanosystems combining magnetic nanoparticles and drugs as well as their superior efficacy in biomedical treatments with smart performance by including therapy and modulated drug delivery and release through magnetic heating.
Glasses formed with heavy metal (atomic weight >100) oxides (HMO) have received significant attention because of their interesting physical and optical properties. In this perspective, bismuth (atomic weight = 209) oxide containing glasses is one of the most important members of this family. Bismuth oxide glasses are very useful for exploiting as lead-free, low-softening point, high refractive index, high density and radio shielding glasses. These glasses have long infrared cut-off, which makes them ideal candidates for optical transmission in the infrared to visible region. Thus there has been an increasing interest in the studies of synthesis, microstructure, physical and optical properties of bismuth oxide containing glasses and bismuth oxide doped glasses. Optical absorption studies of bismuth oxide glasses yield important information regarding their electronic states. The synthesis of size-controlled, spherical Bi nanoparticlesand strategies for generation of various shaped Bi nanoparticles in glass matrix is again a very attractivearea for nanomaterial research. Moreover, the generation of surface plasmon resonance due to various shape and sizes bismuth nanoparticles is yet again open a very fascinating research area for plasmonic, nanophotonic and optoelectronic applications. Recent advances have sparked intense interest in bismuthdoped optical materials. Their broadband photoluminescence near infrared (NIR) has been established in many glasses. The bismuth oxide doped fibre lasers and amplifiers have created up to now to cover thespectral region 1100 to 1550 nm. The current trends show that the bismuth oxide and its doped glasses are very attractive and important optical materials for various scientific as well as technological applications.
On the other hand, only a few studies have focused on the preparation technology of albumin-based nanoparticles with large scale, uniform diameter distribution and stable diameter distribution in each batch. It is well studied that the size and shape could seriously affect the cell uptake and biodistribution of nanoparticle [-]. The development of reliable technologies with controlled manufacturing quality is critical to guarantee the clinical success of albumin-based nanomedicine and definitely accelerate the clinical translation of albumin-based nanoparticles.