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KW - Solid-phase peptide synthesis

However, OBOC peptide libraries usually display the N-termini of peptides on the surface as conventional solid phase peptide synthesis proceeds in the C to N direction.

AB - Combinatorial synthesis of peptides on solid supports (1), either as spots on cellulose membranes (2) or with split-pool-libraries on polymer beads (3), substantially forwarded research in the field of peptide-protein interactions. Admittedly, these concepts have specific limitations, on one hand the number of synthesizable peptide sequences per area, on the other hand elaborate decoding/encoding strategies, false-positive results and sequence limitations. We recently established a method to produce high-density peptide arrays on microelectronic chips (4). Solid amino acid microparticles were charged by friction and transferred to defined pixel electrodes onto the chip's surface, where they couple to a functional polymer coating simply upon melting (Fig. 16.1 A-D,F). By applying standard Fmoc chemistry according to Merrifield, peptide array densities of up to 40,000 spots per square centimetre were achieved (Fig. 16.1G). The term "Merrifield synthesis" describes the consecutive linear coupling and deprotecting of L-amino acids modified with base-labile fluorenylmethoxy (Fmoc) groups at the N-terminus and different acid-sensitive protecting groups at their side chains. Removing side chain protecting groups takes place only once at the very end of each synthesis and generates the natural peptide sequence thereby.

with split-and-pool synthesis ..

based on split-and-pool synthesis

Lecture 5' An Overview of Solid Phase Organic Synthesis

N2 - Large combinatorial libraries of random peptides have been used for a variety of applications that include analysis of protein-protein interactions, epitope mapping, and drug targeting. The major obstacle in screening these libraries is the loss of specific but low affinity binding peptides during washing steps. Loss of these specific binders often results in isolation of peptides that bind nonspecifically to components used in the selection process. Previously, it has been demonstrated that dimerizing or multimerizing a peptide can remarkably improve its binding kinetics by 10- to 1000-fold due to an avidity effect. To take advantage of this observation, we constructed a random library of 12 amino acid dimeric peptides on polyethylene glycol acrylamide (PEGA) beads by modifying the 'one-bead-one-compound' approach. The chemical synthesis of 100 000 peptides as dimers can be problematic due to steric and aggregation effects and the presence of many peptide sequences that are difficult to synthesize. We have designed a method, described in detail here, to minimize the problems inherent in the synthesis of a dimeric library by modifying the existing 'split and pool' synthetic method. Using this approach the dimeric library was used to isolate a series of peptides that bound selectively to epithelial cancer cells. One peptide with the amino acid sequence QMARIPKRLARH bound as a dimer to prostate cancer cells spiked into the blood but did not bind to circulating hematopoeitic cells. The monomeric form of this peptide, however, did not bind well to the same LNCaP cell line. These data demonstrate that "hits" obtained from such a 'one-bead-one-dimer' library can be used directly for the final application or used as leads for construction of second generation libraries.

AB - Large combinatorial libraries of random peptides have been used for a variety of applications that include analysis of protein-protein interactions, epitope mapping, and drug targeting. The major obstacle in screening these libraries is the loss of specific but low affinity binding peptides during washing steps. Loss of these specific binders often results in isolation of peptides that bind nonspecifically to components used in the selection process. Previously, it has been demonstrated that dimerizing or multimerizing a peptide can remarkably improve its binding kinetics by 10- to 1000-fold due to an avidity effect. To take advantage of this observation, we constructed a random library of 12 amino acid dimeric peptides on polyethylene glycol acrylamide (PEGA) beads by modifying the 'one-bead-one-compound' approach. The chemical synthesis of 100 000 peptides as dimers can be problematic due to steric and aggregation effects and the presence of many peptide sequences that are difficult to synthesize. We have designed a method, described in detail here, to minimize the problems inherent in the synthesis of a dimeric library by modifying the existing 'split and pool' synthetic method. Using this approach the dimeric library was used to isolate a series of peptides that bound selectively to epithelial cancer cells. One peptide with the amino acid sequence QMARIPKRLARH bound as a dimer to prostate cancer cells spiked into the blood but did not bind to circulating hematopoeitic cells. The monomeric form of this peptide, however, did not bind well to the same LNCaP cell line. These data demonstrate that "hits" obtained from such a 'one-bead-one-dimer' library can be used directly for the final application or used as leads for construction of second generation libraries.

the development of solid-phase peptide synthesis 1, ..

Combinatorial synthesis of peptides on solid supports (1), either as spots on cellulose membranes (2) or with split-pool-libraries on polymer beads (3), substantially forwarded research in the field of peptide-protein interactions. Admittedly, these concepts have specific limitations, on one hand the number of synthesizable peptide sequences per area, on the other hand elaborate decoding/encoding strategies, false-positive results and sequence limitations. We recently established a method to produce high-density peptide arrays on microelectronic chips (4). Solid amino acid microparticles were charged by friction and transferred to defined pixel electrodes onto the chip's surface, where they couple to a functional polymer coating simply upon melting (Fig. 16.1 A-D,F). By applying standard Fmoc chemistry according to Merrifield, peptide array densities of up to 40,000 spots per square centimetre were achieved (Fig. 16.1G). The term "Merrifield synthesis" describes the consecutive linear coupling and deprotecting of L-amino acids modified with base-labile fluorenylmethoxy (Fmoc) groups at the N-terminus and different acid-sensitive protecting groups at their side chains. Removing side chain protecting groups takes place only once at the very end of each synthesis and generates the natural peptide sequence thereby.

Solid phase peptide synthesis was first introduced to overcome the technical ..

Binding selections are often performed using an immobilized target that chromatographically separates active library members bound to the target from non-binding library members that remain in solution. Can also be done in solution using capillary electrophoresis or a tag suitable for subsequent immobilisation (eg His tag).. PCR amplification and DNA sequencing allows identification of the actives. Of course, not all molecules with affinity for the target protein will have the desired biological effect, so representative hits are synthesised (off-DNA) and tested in a functional assay. Any validated hits of interest can then be followed up by hit expansion libraries (off-DNA) using the established routes and guided by the affinity hit data.

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On-bead cell-binding assay Split-and-pool synthesis ..


The Split-Pool Synthesis Method to produce ..

Large combinatorial libraries of random peptides have been used for a variety of applications that include analysis of protein-protein interactions, epitope mapping, and drug targeting. The major obstacle in screening these libraries is the loss of specific but low affinity binding peptides during washing steps. Loss of these specific binders often results in isolation of peptides that bind nonspecifically to components used in the selection process. Previously, it has been demonstrated that dimerizing or multimerizing a peptide can remarkably improve its binding kinetics by 10- to 1000-fold due to an avidity effect. To take advantage of this observation, we constructed a random library of 12 amino acid dimeric peptides on polyethylene glycol acrylamide (PEGA) beads by modifying the 'one-bead-one-compound' approach. The chemical synthesis of 100 000 peptides as dimers can be problematic due to steric and aggregation effects and the presence of many peptide sequences that are difficult to synthesize. We have designed a method, described in detail here, to minimize the problems inherent in the synthesis of a dimeric library by modifying the existing 'split and pool' synthetic method. Using this approach the dimeric library was used to isolate a series of peptides that bound selectively to epithelial cancer cells. One peptide with the amino acid sequence QMARIPKRLARH bound as a dimer to prostate cancer cells spiked into the blood but did not bind to circulating hematopoeitic cells. The monomeric form of this peptide, however, did not bind well to the same LNCaP cell line. These data demonstrate that "hits" obtained from such a 'one-bead-one-dimer' library can be used directly for the final application or used as leads for construction of second generation libraries.

SciCombinator - Combinatorial Solid-Phase Synthesis …

N2 - Combinatorial synthesis of peptides on solid supports (1), either as spots on cellulose membranes (2) or with split-pool-libraries on polymer beads (3), substantially forwarded research in the field of peptide-protein interactions. Admittedly, these concepts have specific limitations, on one hand the number of synthesizable peptide sequences per area, on the other hand elaborate decoding/encoding strategies, false-positive results and sequence limitations. We recently established a method to produce high-density peptide arrays on microelectronic chips (4). Solid amino acid microparticles were charged by friction and transferred to defined pixel electrodes onto the chip's surface, where they couple to a functional polymer coating simply upon melting (Fig. 16.1 A-D,F). By applying standard Fmoc chemistry according to Merrifield, peptide array densities of up to 40,000 spots per square centimetre were achieved (Fig. 16.1G). The term "Merrifield synthesis" describes the consecutive linear coupling and deprotecting of L-amino acids modified with base-labile fluorenylmethoxy (Fmoc) groups at the N-terminus and different acid-sensitive protecting groups at their side chains. Removing side chain protecting groups takes place only once at the very end of each synthesis and generates the natural peptide sequence thereby.

Combinatorial Synthesis in Solid-Phase

While large combinatorial libraries of cyclic peptides can be synthesized by the split-and-pool synthesis method, the sequence determination has been a challenge.

phase peptide synthesis by using a HOBt/DIC ..

Diverse strategies in library synthesis are catered for at any scale. Multipin Array Synthesis employs the common 8x12 microtitre format to manipulate groups of Lanterns up to 96 at once. Split and Pool techniques are well supported too. Colour coded tags are ideal for tracking compounds in small libraries or reaction optimizations, while radio frequency transponders can be used to orchestrate complex syntheses.

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