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protein synthesis and bone growth: Thyroid: Thyroxine ..

Transforming Growth Factor-Beta-1 (TGFB1): A polypeptide growth factor which regulates cell differentiation and proliferation. TGFB1 has been shown to inhibit the growth of epithelial cells. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), other growth factors in the TGFB1 family and possibly present in raw milk, cause the formation of new bone and cartilage.

Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH): A pituitary hormone that triggers release of (T4) and (T3) from the thyroid gland, both of which play key roles in determining the body's metabolic rate and temperature, rate of protein synthesis and sensitivity to a class of substances called the best known example being the neurotransmitter/hormone or . TSH is inhibited by somatostatin.

Protein Synthesis -Translation and Regulation

Glossary | Linus Pauling Institute | Oregon State University

C-reactive protein (CRP) a protein that is produced in the liver in response to inflammation

As bone-forming cells differentiate into chondrocytes through cellular condensation, synthesis of ColII and a marked increase in ColII mRNA level occur. The continuous and progressive accumulation of ColII and aggrecan mRNA after treatment with rhTGF-β1 in denervation mice suggests that TGF-β1 stimulates chondrogenesis in denervation mice, in line with previous reports [, ] and supported in the present study by increased proteoglycan synthesis.



Glycine is the simplest amino acid. It contributes to the manufacture of other amino acids and is incorporated into important structures in the body. It is a primary ingredient in the synthesis of heme, the vital portion of our blood that carries oxygen. It is used in the synthesis of creatine, which buffers energy and shuttles energy across membranes in muscle tissue, especially the heart. It contributes to the synthesis of bile salts. It is incorporated into purines and pyrimadines, and nucleic acids, which form our DNA and RNA. It is used as a cofactor in phase I detoxification, during the final oxidation.35 It is one of the three amino acids needed to form glutathione, the key phase II detoxification enzyme. Glycine is used in gluconeogenesis, the synthesis of glucose from amino acids (protein) during times of fasting, and therefore affects the stabilization of blood glucose levels.36

Glycine is classified as a nonessential amino acid because we can synthesize it within our body. Not all scientists believe it is unnecessary to consume it though. In fact, Yu and associates found that glycine metabolism is directly responsive to dietary glycine and that prolonged abstinence in the diet may limit the formation of heme, glutathione, purines and creatine.37 Jackson has concluded that a marginal state of glycine is more common then previously thought.38 Jackson also found that certain conditions increase our need for glycine, such as sickle cell anemia and pregnancy. In the case of sickle cell anemia, the high rate of heme destruction increases the requirement for glycine.39 In pregnancy, the growing fetus creates a demand for glycine that is two to ten times greater than normal, and two to ten times greater than the need for other amino acids.40

Additional studies have reported positive results with glycine for health conditions. Fogarty states that glycine is "associated with a strongly reduced risk of asthma."41 Wald demonstrated that glycine stimulates gastric acid secretion.42 In a study on wound healing, Minuskin theorized that glycine was particularly helpful due to its high concentration in connective tissue and also due to the increased need for creatine in wound healing.43 It has also been found to be the rate limiting step in rapid growth, of which both wound healing and fetus growth are an example.44 Lastly, Ottenberg stated that "the ability of the liver to perform protective synthesis is limited by the amount of glycine available," and further recommended gelatin as a glycine supplement for patients with jaundice and other liver problems.45

Broths are often used in modified fasting and cleansing regimes. In the fasting state, glycine is used for gluconeogenesis. During periods of fasting when no food or energy source is being consumed, our body breaks down our own protein tissues, such as muscle, to create energy from. If broth is consumed, it supplies an outside source of glycine, which limits or prevents degeneration during the fast. Since glycine is also used for phase I and II detoxification, it puts broth into the category of a liver tonic (or liver supportive). Broth helps the body to detoxify during a cleanse, and in fact at any time it is eaten.

To summarize, glycine (broth) can be considered for use in the following conditions: anemia, fatigue, detoxification, blood sugar dysregulation, muscle wasting, wound healing, pregnancy, infant and childhood growth, asthma, hypochlorhydria, jaundice and liver support.

Protein & Amino Acids in the Equine Diet

14. Centrella M, Massague J, Canalis E. Human platelet-derived transforming growth factor-beta stimulates parameters of bone growth in fetal rat calvariae. 1986;119(5):2306-2312


Over 15 types of collagen have now been identified, but histology classifies three main types.30 Type I is in bone, skin, ligaments, tendons and the white of the eye. Type II is in cartilage. Type III is in bone marrow and lymph, and is also called reticulin fiber.31 (Table I)

Protein fibers are created by stringing together amino acids, the building blocks of protein. Collagen differs from the average protein in that it is composed of a high concentration of certain amino acids. Specifically, about one third of collagen is composed of glycine, the smallest amino acid. Another third of collagen is composed of proline (and hydroxyproline, the active form of proline).32 The small size of glycine along with the properties of proline, allows for the unique triple helix shape of collagen. A smaller portion of the amino acids lysine (and hydroxylysine) are also incorporated into collagen. The remaining structure is made from other amino acids that vary. (Table II)

Scurvy is a disease caused by a deficiency of vitamin C. It results in symptoms such as bleeding gums, bruising, and poor wound healing. These manifestations are actually due to a deficiency of collagen, because vitamin C is needed to synthesize collagen. It converts proline into hydroxy proline.33 Collagen, along with minerals are needed for the creation and healing of bone. It is also integral to cartilage formation and repair, along with GAGs.

To summarize, collagen (broth) can be considered for use in the following conditions: poor wound healing, soft tissue injury (including surgery), cartilage and bone injury (including dental degeneration).

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Steroids | health benefits, biological functions, side effects


Preventing Osteoporosis, Bone Loss, Hip Fractures, …

Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH): A 39 amino acid polypeptide hormone that acts in the cortex of the adrenal gland to increase production of corticosteroid hormones, two groups in particular- the and the . The glucocorticoids, such as , control stress response, protein, carbohydrate and fat metabolism, and have anti-inflammatory properties as well. The mineralocorticoids, like the hormone , control water and electrolyte levels in the body by inducing the kidneys to retain sodium. ACTH has a very short half-life of 10 minutes. The term refers to the amount of time it takes 50% of a substance to degrade or lose activity. In the case of ACTH, every 10 minutes, another 50% of what's left degrades until it's completely gone.

What is Collagen? 7 Ways Collagen Can Boost Your …


Although it seems obscure today, gelatin has been studied and recommended, with great enthusiasm, by the medical community in the past. In 1937 Dr. Pottenger said, "Gelatin may be used in conjunction with almost any diet that the clinician feels is indicated."20From the late 1800s to the mid-1900s, gelatin was the subject of many studies, and these were summarized in the book, , by Dr. Gotthoffer.21 In her article, "Why Broth is Beautiful," nutritionist Kaayla Daniel speculates that one of the reasons gelatin is so infrequently studied today, is due to a lack of standardization. Without a consistent item, researchers in the past found it difficult to reproduce findings.22 In Gotthoffer's survey, one general area of health prescription clearly comes to the fore, and that is digestion. Most notably, he refers to over 30 years of research on gelatin's ability to improve the digestion of milk. In the early 1900s gelatin was therefore recommended as an ingredient in infant formula, to decrease allergic reactions, colic and respiratory ailments. Gelatin was also reported to increase the digestibility of beans and meat (which gives credence to the practice of serving meat with gravy). It was also found that gelatin increased the utilization of the protein in wheat, oats and barley, all gluten containing grains.23 Gluten is a notoriously difficult to digest protein for many people. Those that suffer from gluten allergy are diagnosed with Celiac disease, a debilitating condition.

Gotthoffer also found gelatin to be prescribed for both hyper- and hypo-stomach acidity. He cites three physicians who report gelatin to "work better and more rapidly than bismuth and tannin" in clinical practice.24 A more recent study by Wald, demonstrated that glycine (a main ingredient in gelatin) stimulates gastric acid secretion.25

Another recent study found that "gelatin as feed supplement protected against ethanol-induced mucosal damages in rats."26 This directly supports the traditional thought that broth is healing and coating to the gastrointestinal lining, and gives a scientific explanation for broth's ability to calm and soothe. Gelatin has also been found to improve body weight as well as bone mineral density in states of protein undernutrition.27 Additionally, studies have shown that convalescing adults, who have lost weight because of cancer, fare better if gelatin is added to their diet. It is said to be tolerated when almost nothing else can be.28

Some of the medical communities in other parts of the world value gelatin too. In Chinese herbal medicine, gelatin is an important herbal remedy, in use for thousands of years. Its Chinese name is e jiao. It is classified as a tonic herb. Tonics strengthen or supplement insufficiency and weakness. They are considered nourishing and enhance the body's resistance to disease. They are used for states of deficiency. Gelatin is used to tonify the blood, in particular. This correlates to Western medical knowledge since, as we will see, glycine, a key ingredient in gelatin, plays a vital role in the blood. (Table II) Also if gelatin is extracted from bone, then marrow, where blood cells are produced is also extracted. Chinese studies have shown gelatin to increase red blood cell and hemoglobin count, increase serum calcium level, increase the absorption and utilization of calcium, and prevent and treat myotonia atrophica (muscle wasting).29

To summarize, gelatin (broth) can be considered for use in the following conditions: food allergies, dairy maldigestion, colic, bean maldigestion, meat maldigestion, grain maldigestion, hypochlorhydria, hyperacidity (gastroesophageal reflux, gastritis, ulcer, hiatal hernia) inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis), irritable bowel syndrome, leaky gut syndrome, malnutrition, weight loss, muscle wasting, cancer, osteoporosis, calcium deficiency and anemia.

Collagen is the most abundant protein in our bodies


Cartilage is deposited in varying places in the body including the nose and ear. The joint cartilage is the primary type that gets incorporated in broth. It functions as a shock absorber and to reduce friction. In the matrix of cartilage, the fiber component is collagen protein and elastin protein. Like collagen, elastin provides strength, but it also provides stretch. It can stretch up to one and a half times its original length.8 The other matrix component, ground substance is made of the glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) chondroitin sulfate, keratin sulfate and hyaluronic acid. The GAGs form a gel ground substance that gives cartilage its resilience. (Table I)

Cartilage has enjoyed fame as a supplement for osteoarthritis in the form of shark cartilage. It has been studied for joint disease, and gastrointestinal disease. Prudden found that cartilage dramatically improved degenerative joint disease, including rheumatoid arthritis. He also found that it improved inflammatory bowel disease.9

Cartilage has a poor blood supply. It actually produces chemicals known as antiangiogenesis factors (AAFs) that inhibit the growth of blood vessels into it. This seemingly unfortunate quality can actually be used to advantage in the fight against cancer. Cancer cells grow very rapidly. They achieve rapid proliferation by stimulating the growth of new blood vessels to support themselves. AAFs are now being used as a treatment to inhibit the growth of blood vessels into cancer cells.10 As a medicine, AAFs are given in the form of cartilage.11

Cartilage supplementation also stimulates B, T, and macrophage immune cells.12 According to Murray and Pizzorno, malnutrition (protein deficiency) is the most common form of immune suppression in the world.13 That is because the immune system is composed primarily of protein, including antibodies, receptors and chemical signalers. When it is further considered that 80% of the immune system lines the gastrointestinal tract, the role of cartilage gains importance, since it can nourish both the gut and the immune system.14

Pharmaceutically prepared cartilage is very expensive, often prohibitively so. Of course cartilage can be extracted at home, by making broth. Broth recipes stress the quality that can be obtained from using highly cartilaginous parts of animals. These parts will be joint areas, like chicken feet and beef knuckles, trachea and ribs, or anatomy with a concentration of glycosaminoglycans, like hooves and skin.

To summarize, cartilage (broth) can be considered for use in the following conditions: arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis), cancer, decreased immune system states, and malnutrition.

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