The US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health compiled a bibliography of more than 350 published and unpublished accounts of take-home, or "para-occupational" contamination worldwide (NIOSH, 1994).
Studies have shown that in the general population in the USA the highest concentrations and largest number of pesticides are found in house dust as compared to soil, air and food (Whitmore et al., 1993; Lewis et al., 1994).
19); specific work); traffic categories Milano; random population sample; tasks Praha demographic and socio-economic status Washington, CO 700 adults aged 18-65; 1982-1983 (winter); diary 8 locations; transport Hartwell et al., USA representative; oversample and questionnaire; minute mode use; activity index; 1984; Akland et long commutes and gas resolution; 1-day sample; smokers present; range use; al., 1985 ranges; excluded smokers; time of year; day of week in gavage; census tracts data on age, gender, work and day for work, home, other; status housing unit characteristics Table 15.
(continued) Location Pollutant Participant characteristics Survey characteristics Spatial and source Reference characteristics Denver, CO 452 adults aged 18-65; 1982-1983 (winter); diary; 8 locations; transport Johnson, 1984 Colorado, representative; oversample questionnaire; minute mode; activity index; USA gas ranges and long commutes; resolution; 2-day sample; smokers present; range use; excluded smokers; data on time of year; day of week; in gavage; census tracts age, gender, work status time of day for work, home, other; housing unit characteristics Elizabeth/ VOCs 355 people; representative; Fall 1981; follow-up: 157 Activities > 1 h; high Wallace et al., Bayonne, oversampled high-exposure in summer 1982; follow-up: exposure activities (e.g., 1985, 1986 New Jersey, occupations; data on age, 49 in early 1983; 24-h smokers, occupations, USA gender, race, socio-economic recall diary; activity travel); proximity to status, and proximity to questionnaire industry; housing unit VOC sources characteristics Portage, NO2, RSP 120 children; selected from 1987; retrospective, actual, 11 microenvironments; home Adair & Spengler, Wisconsin larger (600) cohort; and prospective diary; zip codes; school location; 1989a,b stratified by cooking fuel; 10-15-min resolution; time housing unit characteristics data on gender, age, of year; day of week; time parental education of day Steubenville, NO2, RSP 150 winter, 250 summer; 1987; retrospective actual 11 microenvironments; home Adair & Spengler Ohio selected from cohort of 600 and prospective diary; zip codes; school location; 1989a,b children; stratified by 10-15-min resolution; time housing unit characteristics cooking fuel; data on gender, of year; day of week; age, parental education time of day.
Topeka, NO2, RSP 300 winter, 300 summer; 1988; retrospective, actual 11 microenvironment; home Adair & Spengler, Kansas, selected from cohort of and prospective zip codes; school location; 1989a,b USA 600 children; stratified by questionnaires; 10-15-min housing unit characteristics cooking fuel; data on gender, resolution; time of year; age, parental education day of week; time of day Table 15.
(continued) Location Pollutant Participant characteristics Survey characteristics Spatial and source Reference characteristics New York, No pollutant 1000 children aged 5-12; Mid-1990 to mid-1991; Usual commuting; frequency Silvers et al., New Jersey; stratified by state, 24-h recall of child's of bathing, hand washing; 1994 Pennsylvania, weekday/weekend and season; activities by adult weather conditions; clothing Oregon; data on demographic, caregiver; 30-min resolution; type; play surface; dwelling Washington; socio-economic status and questionnaire; time of type California, community type year; day of week; time USA of day Berkeley, Ozone 168 college freshmen (aged Test-retest reliability Time spent outdoors, time Künzli et al., California, 17-21) raised in California; study to recall lifetime spent in physical activity 1997a,b USA convenience sample; residential history (outdoors) long-term ozone exposure Athens; PM25, CO, 450 adults (aged 25-55) Mostly 1997; 48-h personal, Time spent in Jantunen et al., Basel; VOC, NO2 personal air sampling; indoor, outdoor and at work microenvironments (e.g., 1998 Grenoble; approximately 1200 adults monitoring; time-activity Indoors, outdoors, at Helsinki; with time-activity diary; diary (Fig.
al., USA oversampled high-exposure follow-up: 52 in May-June high-exposure activities 1988, 1991a,b occupation; data on age, 1984 and 51 in Feb and (e.g., smokers, occupations, gender, race, socio-economic March 1987; 24-h recall travel); proximity to status and proximity to VOC diary; activity industry; housing unit sources questionnaire characteristics Boston, NO2 325 (winter), 298 (summer) 1986; diary and 6 microenvironments; range Ryan et al., Massachusetts, ages 8 and above; questionnaire; on; near roads; combustion; 1990 USA representative; stratified 15-30-min resolution; 2-day outside home; home location; by range type; no personal sample; time of year; day housing unit characteristics data of week; time of day Los Angeles NO2 620 people ages 8 and above May 1987-May 1988; diary, 17 microenvironments: Spengler et al., and Orange sampled two 24-h periods; 65 questionnaire; 15-min including near roads; home 1994; Schwab et Counties; sampled eight cycles; resolution; two-day sample; zip codes; work zip codes; al., 1990 representative; data on age, time of year; day of week; climate region; housing gender, work status time of day unit characteristics Albuquerque, NO2 1000+ infants; stratified January 1988-December 1991; Room in house; outside Samet et al., New Mexico, by range type; data on every 2 months for the of house (including travel); 1992 USA child's health and parents' first 18 months of life; range use; housing unit socio-economic and 60 min; time of year; characteristics demographic characteristics day of week; time of day reporting a smoker present in the home was associated with increased indoor concentrations and personal exposures of aromatic compounds; visiting dry cleaners, self-reports of proximity to smokers, pesticide use, exposure to solvent, degreasing compounds, and odorous chemicals, and employment status in certain occupations (e.g., paint, chemical or plastics plants) were associated with increased personal exposure to several VOCs (Wallace et al., 1985, 1986, 1988).
Features of time-activity studies aimed at exposure assessment Location Pollutant Participant characteristics Survey characteristics Spatial and source Reference characteristics Cincinnati, No pollutant 487 people under age 70; March and August 1985; 28 microenvironments; Johnson, 1989 Ohio, USA representative; includes diary; minute resolution; location data; breathing children; oversample 3-day sample; time of rate; smoking status; asthmatics; data on age, year; day of week; time pollutant-related activity gender, race, income, of day questionnaire work status, health status California, No pollutant 1780 people over age 11; October 1987-July 1988; 24-h 50 microenvironments; Wiley et al., USA representative of recall and questionnaire; stressed activities with 1991; Jenkins et English-speaking households; time of year; day of week; respect to toxics exposure al., 1992 stratified by region; data time of day and high breathing rates; on demographics and location/ region; housing socio-economic status unit characteristics California, No pollutant 1200 children under age April 1989-March 1990; 24-h 113 activities; 63 Wiley et al., USA 12; representative of recall and questionnaire; locations; proximity to 1991 English-speaking households; time of year; day of week; sources; location/region; stratified by region; data time of day housing unit characteristics on demographic and socio-economic status Kanawha No pollutant 90 children aged 9-11; July and September 1989; Home/near home/far; Schwab et al., Valley, West longitudinal (4 weeks); diaries; 30-min resolution school; indoor vs.
220.127.116.11 Intensity of contact In addition to time allocation measures and microenvironmental parameters, information on the intensity of contact is needed to assess exposure.
Because this approach requests that participants record all activities over one or more 12-h or 24-h periods, it has the potential to provide the most comprehensive information on time allocation, sequencing, and frequency.