In experiments in rat liver microsomes in which potential DNA adducts were synthesized and used as standards, four depurination products (one-electron oxidation) and one stable product (diol epoxide pathway) of benzo [a]pyrene were detected (Cavalieri & Rogan, 1985; Cavalieri et al., 1993; Rogan et al., 1993).
188.8.131.52 Comparisons of individual PAH Activation of platelets by calcium ionophore A23187 can mobilize intracellular stores of calcium ion and stimulate thromboxane biosynthesis, which can be measured as thromboxane B2 synthesis.
4-Chlorophenol is a starting material for making germicides such as 2-Benzyl-4-chlorophenol; it can also be converted to an analgesic of acetophenetidin.
2,4-Dichlorophenol, with chloroacetic acid, forms 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), used as a selective weed-killer, systemic herbicide and defoliant, also used to increase the latex output of old rubber trees and in fruit drop control.
2,4-Dichloropheno, with formaldehyde, forms methylenebis compounds used as a mothproofing agent, an antiseptic, and a seed disinfectant; 2,4-dichlorophenol, with chloroacetic acid, forms 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) used as a selective weed-killer, systemic herbicide and defoliant, also used to increase the latex output of old rubber trees and in fruit drop control.
The 2,4,5-isomer has similar applications and also can be converted into hexachlorophene or thiobis(trichlorophenol) used as germicides in soap; into dimethyl trichlorophenyl phosphorothioate, a systemic agent effective against grubs in cattle; into 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) or 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxypropionic acid (2,4,5-TCPPA), both widely used as weed killers.
Torregrosa, R. R. P. 2015. 3-Halophenol: 3-Fluorophenol, 3-Chlorophenol, 3-Bromophenol, 3-Iodophenol. e-EROS Encyclopedia of Reagents for Organic Synthesis. 1–4.
“On the Ultraviolet Mutation of O-chlorophenol Degrading Photosynthetic Bacteria” (in Chinese), Journal of Safety and Environment 2009, 5, 55-59.
The main advantages of the 32P-postlabelling assay are its high sensitivity and the fact that radiolabelled carcinogens and/or their metabolites need not be synthesized beforehand.
The synthesized metabolite 3,4-dihydrodiol (but not the 1,2 or 5,6 derivative) was as mutagenic in the presence of liver microsomes as the parent compound (Croisy-Delcey et al., 1979).
angulosa (log phase) photosynthesis (1980) Chlorella vulgaris N S 20 × 104 cell/ml 3 h EC50 332b Inhibition of Hutchinson et al.
In a preliminary validation exercise based on published data on PAH-containing mixtures, McClure & Schoeny (1995) used the values in Table AI.7 to estimate the carcinogenicity of two synthetic mixtures of PAH (Pfeiffer, 1973), both as a sum of their components and as whole mixtures.
Harper KH (1958c) The intermediary metabolism of 3,4-benzyprene: The biosynthesis and identification of the X1 and X2 metabolites.
Mueller JG & Lantz SE (1993) Strategy using bioreactors and specially selected microorganisms for bioremediation of groundwater contaminated with creosote and pentachlorophenol.