Hwa Kim S, Hoon Jeong J, Co Joe and GwanPark T: Folate receptor mediated intracellular protein deliveryusing PLL-PEG-FOL conjugate. J Control Release. 103:625–634.2005.
Hashimoto M, Morimoto M, Saimoto H,Shigemasa Y and Sato T: Lactosylated chitosan for DNA delivery intohepatocytes: the effect of lactosylation on the physicochemicalproperties and intracellular trafficking of pDNA/chitosancomplexes. Bioconjug Chem. 17:309–316. 2006. : :
Sunset Yellow FCF, Orange Yellow S, FD&C Yellow 6,
Carminic acid, Carmine, Natural Red 4,
Brilliant Blue FCF,
plain . It is manufactured by heating carbohydrates with or without acids or alkalis
caustic . It is produced like E150a, but in the presence of sulfite compounds
ammonia . It is produced like E150a, but in the presence of ammonium compounds
sulfite ammonia . It is produced like E150a, but with both sulfite and ammonium compounds
. may be used as a stabilizer. See .
, bixin, norbixin
Capsanthin, capsorubin, Paprika extract. Extracted from the fruit pod and seeds of the red pepper
Beetroot Red, Betanin. Natural extract from beetroot
, Vitamin C
Polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monolaurate, Polysorbate 20
Polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monooleate,
Polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monopalmitate, Polysorbate 40
Polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monostearate,
Polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan tristearate, Polysorbate 65
Sodium, potassium and calcium salts of
Magnesium salts of
Mono- and diglycerides of , Glyceryl monostearate, Glyceryl distearate
Acetic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of
Lactic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of
Citric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of
Tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of
Mono- and diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of
Mixed acetic and tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of
Polyglycerol esters of
Propane-1, 2-diol esters of fatty acids, propylene glycol esters of
Lactylated fatty acid esters of and propane-1
Thermally oxidized soya bean oil interacted with mono- and diglycerides of
, calcium stearate
and its sodium salt
The results of the MTT assay revealed thatdifferences in cytotoxicity between CMCS-5-FU and CMCS-5-FU-PEG-FAwere significantly larger for FR HeLa cell lines(). These results may beattributed to the involvement of the FR in cellular association andendocytosis of CMCS-5-FU-PEG-FA in FR cells.
It is well-documented that PEG shielding improvescirculation time and reduces toxicity (,).Furthermore, it has been reported that polyplex PEG chains arecapable of reducing interactions with blood and extracellularcomponents (,). However, a number of disadvantageshave also been reported, including reduced association with cells,diminished cellular uptake and inefficient cell transfection(,). Adding targeting ligands topolyplexes has been proposed as an attractive strategy to improvetransfection efficiency (,).The major advantage of using chitosan as a drug carrier is that itmay be easily conjugated to targeting agents, including proteins,transferrin (), mannose(–), folate (,)and galactose (–).
tasteless, odorless powder that occurs naturally in marble, , coral, eggshells, pearls or oyster shells
odorless white to off-white granules, powder or liquid. Produced in a variety of ways, including treating with , combining with a solution and by concentrating and purifying naturally occurring brines from salt lakes and salt deposits. Has many uses including additive for foods, deicing agent for sidewalks and roads, water treatment.
a synthetic preservative used to prevent crystal formation and to retard color loss. Has caused health problems and is banned in Australia and certain other countries.
also known as slaked lime. Used as acidity regulator in drinks and frozen foods or as a preservative. It's produced commercially by treating lime with water or by mixing and . It's most commonly derived from limestone, but can also derived from seashells.
the calcium salt of
(Monobasic, Dibasic and Tribasic) a mineral salt found in rocks and bones. Used as an anti-caking agent in cosmetics and food, mineral supplement, abrasive in toothpaste and jelling agent. Also known as calcium rock.
mineral calcium with .
the calcium salt of the ester of lactyl lactate. a vegetable wax obtained from candelilla plants.
obtained from sugarcane. In some countries (like the U.S.), cane sugar is often processed through .
used as a coloring. It is manufactured by heating carbohydrates with or without acids or alkalis. Possible carbohydrates used are corn, beet sugar, cane sugar, wheat or potatoes. The great majority of caramel is derived from corn and will be vegan. However, some caramel is derived from and not necessarily vegan.
a weak acid formed when carbon dioxide combines with water.
alpha carotene, and gamma-carotene
fine wool from the cashmere goat and wild goat of Tibet
Obtained from the anal scent gland of the beaver
A vegetable oil expressed from the castor bean.
enzyme that decomposes hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen. It is derived from cattle liver or fungus and used in the food industry
dried and twisted intestines of the sheep or horse
roe of the sturgeon and other fish
the principal component of the fiber of plants. Cellulose is usually obtained from wood pulp or cotton (which contains about 90% cellulose)
found in or synthetic
, can be synthetic
charred bone or wood
organic base of the hard parts of insects and crustacea e.g. shrimps, crabs
soft leather from the skin of the chamois antelope, sheep, goats, deer etc.
a steroid alcohol occurring in all animal fats and oils, nervous tissue, egg yolk and blood.
used in products designed to help alleviate the effects of osteoarthritis. Produced synthetically or derived from the cartilage of cows, pigs, sharks, fish or birds
enzyme primarily derived from ox pancreas.
obtained from cinnamon leaves, coca leaves, balsams like storax or isolated from a wood-rotting fungus. Can be made synthetically.
derived from citrus fruits and since the 1920s commercially produced by fermenting sugar solutions with the microorganism Aspergillus niger. The main raw materials used in the production are corn-derived and molasses.
substance painfully scraped from glands in the anal pouch of the civet cat
thick liquid or semisolid tar obtained from bituminous coal (= soft coal)
red pigment extracted from the crushed carcasses of the female cochineal insect, a cactus-feeding scale insect
oil extracted from the liver of cod and related fish
modified food starch derived from . Used in frozen foods and canned products. Often labeled as 'Food Starch - Modified'
a protein found in most connective tissues, including bone, cartilage and skin. It is usually derived from cows or chickens
a purified protein derived from animal sources. It's produced by breaking down to smaller protein fragments
Can be from plant, animal and synthetic sources. Most and colors are derived from . Coal tar in itself is considered a vegan product. However, coal tar derivatives cause frequent allergic reactions, like skin rashes and hives. It has also shown to cause cancer in animals. For this reason, colors and dyes are continuously tested on animals. That's why and colors and dyes can generally not be considered vegan and I will mark them as on this page.
hard calcareous substance consisting of the continuous skeleton secreted by coelenterate polyps for their support and habitation
derived from dried corn kernels
a form of made from . It is used as a sweetener
steroid hormones secreted by the adrenal cortex and their synthetic analogs.
fixed oil derived from the seeds of the cultivated varieties of the cotton plant
Colorant derived from
amino acid that oxidizes to form
amino acid found in the hair protein keratin