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N-modified analogues of cocaine: synthesis and inhibition of ..

Repeated administration of cocaine elicits substantial, long-lasting, but reversible reductions in neuropeptide Y (NPY) and NPY mRNA in the rat cerebral cortex and nucleus accumbens. The NPY reduction appears to be mediated through a decrease in NPY biosynthesis, occurring transneuronally, perhaps in response to changes in synaptic dopamine associated with mesolimbic and mesocortical dopamine neurons. The medial prefrontal cortex appears necessary for maintenance of cocaine's action on this neuronal network since excitotoxic lesions of this area prevented (lesion before cocaine) and reversed (lesion after cocaine) the reductions in NPY elicited by the cocaine. NPY may be a sensitive marker for chronic cocaine use. Its decrease may relate to the anxiety and depression associated with cocaine withdrawal in humans.

The first synthesis and elucidation of the structure of the cocaine molecule was by Richard Willstetter in 1898.[7] The synthesis started from tropinone, a related natural product and took five steps.

Coca and cocaine - Overcome Cocaine Addiction

Cocaine from sugar | Synthetic Remarks

AB - Repeated administration of cocaine elicits substantial, long-lasting, but reversible reductions in neuropeptide Y (NPY) and NPY mRNA in the rat cerebral cortex and nucleus accumbens. The NPY reduction appears to be mediated through a decrease in NPY biosynthesis, occurring transneuronally, perhaps in response to changes in synaptic dopamine associated with mesolimbic and mesocortical dopamine neurons. The medial prefrontal cortex appears necessary for maintenance of cocaine's action on this neuronal network since excitotoxic lesions of this area prevented (lesion before cocaine) and reversed (lesion after cocaine) the reductions in NPY elicited by the cocaine. NPY may be a sensitive marker for chronic cocaine use. Its decrease may relate to the anxiety and depression associated with cocaine withdrawal in humans.

N2 - Repeated administration of cocaine elicits substantial, long-lasting, but reversible reductions in neuropeptide Y (NPY) and NPY mRNA in the rat cerebral cortex and nucleus accumbens. The NPY reduction appears to be mediated through a decrease in NPY biosynthesis, occurring transneuronally, perhaps in response to changes in synaptic dopamine associated with mesolimbic and mesocortical dopamine neurons. The medial prefrontal cortex appears necessary for maintenance of cocaine's action on this neuronal network since excitotoxic lesions of this area prevented (lesion before cocaine) and reversed (lesion after cocaine) the reductions in NPY elicited by the cocaine. NPY may be a sensitive marker for chronic cocaine use. Its decrease may relate to the anxiety and depression associated with cocaine withdrawal in humans.

Procaine is a local anesthetic drug of the amino ester group

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