Since is localized in the Golgi compartment, this enzyme might be a nonmitochondrial CoQ10 prenyltransferase. To test this, laboratories performed subcellular fractionation experiments on human ECs and detected only in Golgi compartments and not in mitochondria.
Studies about de novo CoQ10 synthesis in these subcellular fractions by incubating ECs with the hydroxy-4-benzoic acid- 13 C 6 precursor and observed a decrease in CoQ10- 13 C 6
production in Golgi compartments compared to mitochondrial fractions when expression is reduced.
These data indicate that is a CoQ10 biosynthetic enzyme located in the Golgi membrane compartment where large amounts of cellular CoQ10 are normally synthesized.
We speculate that some of these similar effects may be due to increased endogenous CoQ10 synthesis induced by the ascorbic acid along with generally better all around nutrition.
Exercise and physical activity
The Effects Of Coenzyme Q10 Supplementation on Performance During Repeated Bouts of Supramaximal Exercise in Sedentary Men.
J Strength Cond Res. 2009.
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of oral coenzyme Q10 supplementation on performance during repeated bouts of supramaximal exercise. This randomized, double-blind, crossover study was composed of two 8-week periods of supplementation with either 100 mg.d CoQ10 or placebo. Fifteen healthy and sedentary men participated in the study. According to our results, CoQ10 may show performance-enhancing effects during the repeated bouts of supramaximal exercises and CoQ10 might be used as ergogenic aid.Heart Attacks
In a small trial of patients with recent myocardial infarction, Coenzyme Q10 -- used in addition to aspirin and cholesterol-lowering drugs -- decreased the likelihood of further cardiac events for at least one year after the heart attack. The dosage of Coenzyme Q10 used in the study was 60 mg twice daily. Heart Failure.
Although the genes encoding for the CoQ10 ( )biosynthetic enzymes have been identified in bacteria and yeast, there is still only limited information about these synthetic enzymes in vertebrates.
The rate-limiting enzyme for the biosynthesis of CoQ10 is the enzyme that catalyzes the condensation of the polyisoprenoid chain with the benzoquinone ring.
So far, the mitochondrial enzyme has been considered the only prenyltransferase able to catalyze this reaction.
Both propranolol and adriamycin are biochemically known to inhibit mitochondrial CoQ10-enzymes of myocardial tissue in vitro. Both propranolol and adriamycin are clinically known to cause cardiotoxicity. At two dose levels of propranolol which caused no deaths to mice when administered alone, significant potentiation (p less than 0.01) of the lethality of adriamycin to mice was observed. These data, projected to the clinical situation, seem to contraindicate the administration of the beta-blocker, propranolol, for the hypertension of a cancer patient who is being treated with adriamycin.
From the laboratories of the Department of Molecular Biotechnology and Health Sciences( Molecular Biotechnology Center, University of Torino) It has been identfied (a vertebrate CoQ10 prenyltransferase),as an enzyme for CoQ10 synthesis at the level of Golgi membranes, critical for oxidative stress protection (in particular, protects cardiovascular tissues from eNOS-dependent oxidative stress.
It had been found out a functional link between CoQ10, and NO signaling during cardiovascular development and homeostasis. ( )
( ) contains an UbiA prenyltransferase domain also present in vertebrate
Although encodes a mitochondrial prenyltransferase, this new enzyme resides in the Golgi compartment where it produces CoQ10. While the presence of CoQ10 in nonmitochondrial membranes was previously explained by the existence of specific mechanisms for its redistribution within the cell, now formally studies demonstrate that CoQ10 are synthetized in the Golgi compartment.
In favor of these hypothesis of a Golgi-synthetized CoQ10, it has been reported that and which are critical enzymes for CoQ10 maturation, are also localized in the Golgi compartment. ( )
From the above evidence and rea-soning it follows that (1) Statin drugs could cause cancer in humans when used for decades, by lowering body Coenzyme Q10;15 (2) Intake of CoQ10 at 50 to 100 mg/day could protect millions against cardiac conditions and cancers. For best results, the supplement needs to be accompanied by substantial quantities of the other members of the anti-oxidant team in a well-rounded, above RDA program of nutrient supplementation. Also necessary is a diet including moderate quantities of baked or boiled red meat and heavy in fresh, raw or lightly steamed vegetables. (3) High dose CoQ10 may defeat many cancers and their metastases without adverse side effects in humans as well as rats.
Coenzyme Q10 improves the functional capacity of patients with chronic heart failure, along with strengthening of their heart. Dr. Romualdo Belardinelli, of Lancisi Heart Institute, Italy, and colleagues studied 23 patients, average age 59 years, with moderate to severe heart failure. They were assigned to 4 weeks each of oral Coenzyme Q10 supplements or inactive placebo pills, with or without supervised exercise training five times per week. Supplementation with Coenzyme Q10 led to a significant 3 percent increase in HDL ("good") cholesterol and improvement in peak exercise capacity. There was an increase in cardiac function with Coenzyme Q10 treatment. Combining exercise training with CoQ10 produced more marked improvements in these and all other parameters.
The researchers conclude that oral Coenzyme Q10 improves several aspects of heart failure without any side effects. European Heart Journal, November 2006. Coenzyme Q10
Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2014 Feb 2. Coenzyme Q10 as a therapy for mitochondrial disease. Treatment of mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) disorders is extremely difficult, however, coenzyme Q10 and its synthetic analogues are the only agents which have shown some therapeutic benefit to patients. It serves as an electron carrier in the MRC as well as functioning as a potent lipid soluble antioxidant.
Anti-aging and longevity
Coenzyme Q10 protects from aging-related oxidative stress and improves mitochondrial function in heart of rats fed a polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-rich diet.
The following headlines summarize the many clinical studies that have shown CoQ10 supplementation beneficial in disease conditions ranging from Parkinsons disease to cataracts. Dosages studied range from 30 mg to 1200 mg daily. Higher dosages have generally been found to be more beneficial.