Longnecker, M.P., Rogan, W.J. & Lucier, G. (1997) The human health effects of DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) and PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) and an overview of organochlorines in public health. , 18, 211–244.
Malaria remains a significant public health problem in endemic regions of the world, most especially in sub-Saharan Africa. As part of the global efforts to control malaria, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), a cheap and effective chemical, was endorsed by the World Health Organization for use in indoor residual spraying (IRS). However, in the light of evidence on the acute toxicity of DDT, concerns have grown about the safety or the possible chronic health effects from the continued use of this persistent chemical, generating much debate and research efforts over the years. The purpose of this study was to identify, appraise and synthesise evidence about the chronic adverse effects of long-term exposure to DDT in children, 0-18 years, in zones where IRS is practised, in order to contribute to informing policy decisions.
Twenty-seven electronic databases were systematically searched using pre-defined inclusion/exclusion criteria. Two were trial registers while 25 others indexed studies of various designs. Other complementary methods were also employed in searching for both published and grey literature. Eligible studies were critically appraised using amended versions of available validated guidelines (and in a case, an improvised guideline) and a narrative synthesis was undertaken.
Only nine studies met the inclusion/exclusion criteria out of 3281 hits generated. Five of the studies are of high quality while four are of moderate quality. For the three studies on neurodevelopment, evidence suggestive of negative impact of DDT was found. For the three studies on endocrine/congenital disorders, ambivalent evidence existed. In the case of the immunity-related outcome, there was growing but insufficient evidence of negative effect. The only study on survival outcome was inconclusive.
Empirically, insufficient evidence exists with regard to the chronic adverse effects of long-term exposure of children to DDT through IRS. Considering the dearth of studies and the fact that many adverse effects might take much longer time to manifest, inferences drawn are weak. It would therefore require a series of well-coordinated observational studies done in the context of IRS to adequately address this evidence gap in the future.
1918:Fritz Haber receives the Nobel Prize for his work on Ammoniasynthesis. However, the award is highly protested because ofhis prominent role in developing and delivering poison gas in WWI.Ironically, Haber is forced to leave his beloved Germany in 1933because he is part Jewish
(Sadasivaiah, 2007) Eleven countries in Africa, 7 in Asia, and 5 in Latin America use dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane or DDT for vector control (Turusov, 2002).
Melissa Breyer states, “What’s clear is that we thrive on good smells; and it seems to me like we have been subtly strong-armed into thinking that synthetic “fresh” smells are better than the natural smells of living” (Breyer)....
o, p’-DDT thus produces the uterine hyperplasia characteristic of estrogens, but the magnitude and timing of the response is dependent on the specific cell type observed and is different from that produced by estradiol.AB - The administration of o, p’-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (o, p’-DDT) to immature rats stimulates DNA synthesis and cell division in the uterine luminal epithelium (LE), stroma (S), and myometrium (M).
Field capacityFD fluorescence detectionFDA Food and Drug Administration (USA)FEF forced expiratory flowFEP free erythrocyte porphyrinFEV forced expiratory volumefg femtogram (10-15g)FI flame ionizationFID flame ionization detectorFMLP formyl methionyl leucyl phenylalanineFMN flavin mononucleotideFOB functional observational batteryFPD flame photometric detectorFR flame retardantFS fluorescence spectrophotometryFSC Food Safety Council (USA)FSD flame photometric detector selective for sulfurFSH follicle-stimulating hormoneFTIR Fourier transform infraredFVC forced vital capacityGA gibberillic acidGABA gamma-aminobutyric acidGAG glycosaminoglycanGALT gut-associated lymphoid tissueGAP good agricultural practiceGBM glomerular basement membraneGC gas chromatographyGC-ECD gas chromatography with electron capture detectorGC-SIM gas chromatography with selected ion monitoringGDH glutamate dehydrogenaseGDMS glow discharge mass spectrometryGEMS Global Environmental Monitoring SystemGESAMP Group of Experts for the Scientific Aspects of Marine PollutionGFAAS graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometryGFR glomerular filtration rateGGT gamma-glutamyltranspeptidaseGH growth hormoneGI gastrointestinalGIFAP International Group of National Association of Manufacturers of Agrochemical Products (French Acronym for: Groupement International des Associations Nationales de Fabricants de Produits Agrochimiques)GLC gas-liquid chromatographyGLDH glutamate dehydrogenaseGLP good laboratory practicecGMP cyclic guanosine monophosphateGOT glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminaseGPC gel permeation chromatographyGPMT guinea-pig maximization testGPT glutamic-pyruvic transaminaseGS glutamine synthetaseGSH glutathione-SHGST glutathione-S-transferaseGTB glomerular tubular balanceGV guidance valueGWP global-warming potentialh hour(s)ha hectareHb haemoglobinHBCD hexabromocyclododecaneHBDH hydroxybutyric dehydrogenaseH & E haematoxolin and eosinHCB hexachlorobenzeneHCBD hexachloro-1,3-butadieneHCFC hydrochlorofluorocarbonHCFH-22 chlorodifluoromethane (CHClF2)HCG human chorionic gonadotropinHCH hexachlorocyclohexaneHDL high density lipoproteinHDPE high density polyethyleneHEAL Human Exposure Assessment LocationHECD Hall electron capture detectorHEV high endothelial venuleHEX hexachlorocyclopentadieneHGPRT hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferaseHIPS high impact polystyreneHIV human immunodeficiency virusHLB hydrophilic-lipophilic balanceHLV hygienic limit valuehnRNA heterogeneous nuclear RNAHPCA human progenitor cell antigenHPI cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboximideHPLC high-performance liquid chromatographyHPTLC high-performance thin-layer chromatographyHQ hydroquinoneHS headspaceHSA heat-stable antigen; human serum albuminHSG Health and Safety GuideIARC International Agency for Research on CancerIC ion chromatographyICAM intercellular adhesion moleculeIC50 median inhibitory concentrationICD International Classification of DiseasesICG indocyanine greenICP inductively coupled plasmaICST isolated cold stress testingi.d.