ft., former Hercules/PFW facility in Middletown, NY; Fleurchem produces a full range of natural isolates, synthetic chemicals & specialities, essential oils and flavors.
Another method of producing bio-based propene is via syngas and propan-1-ol. Synthesis gas (carbon monoxide and hydrogen) is used to convert bioethanol to propan-1-ol (Figure 3, route 4):
Any solid biomass including for example agricultural, city and industrial waste can be used to make synthesis gas using techniques similar to its production from . More recent developments includes a plant in the Netherlands, which is using liquid propane-1,2,3-triol (glycerol), a by-product from the production of , from animal fats and vegetable oils.
Postcondensation in the solid phase, 20°-30°C below Tm, was most effective after short melt polymerization times.AB - The synthesis of poly(ester amide) copolymers (PBTA) based on poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT) and nylon-4,T with the diamide of butanediamine and dimethyl terephthelate (N,N′-bis(p-carbomethoxybenzoyl)butanediamine) has been carried out.
Field capacityFD fluorescence detectionFDA Food and Drug Administration (USA)FEF forced expiratory flowFEP free erythrocyte porphyrinFEV forced expiratory volumefg femtogram (10-15g)FI flame ionizationFID flame ionization detectorFMLP formyl methionyl leucyl phenylalanineFMN flavin mononucleotideFOB functional observational batteryFPD flame photometric detectorFR flame retardantFS fluorescence spectrophotometryFSC Food Safety Council (USA)FSD flame photometric detector selective for sulfurFSH follicle-stimulating hormoneFTIR Fourier transform infraredFVC forced vital capacityGA gibberillic acidGABA gamma-aminobutyric acidGAG glycosaminoglycanGALT gut-associated lymphoid tissueGAP good agricultural practiceGBM glomerular basement membraneGC gas chromatographyGC-ECD gas chromatography with electron capture detectorGC-SIM gas chromatography with selected ion monitoringGDH glutamate dehydrogenaseGDMS glow discharge mass spectrometryGEMS Global Environmental Monitoring SystemGESAMP Group of Experts for the Scientific Aspects of Marine PollutionGFAAS graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometryGFR glomerular filtration rateGGT gamma-glutamyltranspeptidaseGH growth hormoneGI gastrointestinalGIFAP International Group of National Association of Manufacturers of Agrochemical Products (French Acronym for: Groupement International des Associations Nationales de Fabricants de Produits Agrochimiques)GLC gas-liquid chromatographyGLDH glutamate dehydrogenaseGLP good laboratory practicecGMP cyclic guanosine monophosphateGOT glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminaseGPC gel permeation chromatographyGPMT guinea-pig maximization testGPT glutamic-pyruvic transaminaseGS glutamine synthetaseGSH glutathione-SHGST glutathione-S-transferaseGTB glomerular tubular balanceGV guidance valueGWP global-warming potentialh hour(s)ha hectareHb haemoglobinHBCD hexabromocyclododecaneHBDH hydroxybutyric dehydrogenaseH & E haematoxolin and eosinHCB hexachlorobenzeneHCBD hexachloro-1,3-butadieneHCFC hydrochlorofluorocarbonHCFH-22 chlorodifluoromethane (CHClF2)HCG human chorionic gonadotropinHCH hexachlorocyclohexaneHDL high density lipoproteinHDPE high density polyethyleneHEAL Human Exposure Assessment LocationHECD Hall electron capture detectorHEV high endothelial venuleHEX hexachlorocyclopentadieneHGPRT hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferaseHIPS high impact polystyreneHIV human immunodeficiency virusHLB hydrophilic-lipophilic balanceHLV hygienic limit valuehnRNA heterogeneous nuclear RNAHPCA human progenitor cell antigenHPI cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboximideHPLC high-performance liquid chromatographyHPTLC high-performance thin-layer chromatographyHQ hydroquinoneHS headspaceHSA heat-stable antigen; human serum albuminHSG Health and Safety GuideIARC International Agency for Research on CancerIC ion chromatographyICAM intercellular adhesion moleculeIC50 median inhibitory concentrationICD International Classification of DiseasesICG indocyanine greenICP inductively coupled plasmaICST isolated cold stress testingi.d.
KalamaTMBenzyl alcohol is used as an intermediate in the synthesis of polypeptides and is used extensively as a non-reactive diluent in epoxy resin coatings, where it reduces the viscosity and raises product flexibility.
Synthesis gas is converted into a hydrocarbon wax (a mixture of long-chain alkanes) by heating it and passing the vapour over a cobalt catalyst (the Fischer-Tropsch process) (Figure 2, route 5). The (SMDS) is a modern development of this process. The hydrocarbon waxes are subsequently catalytically cracked with excess hydrogen () (Figure 2, route 9) to form smaller alkanes, for example:
Another way to produce propene is via methanol (produced from biomass via synthesis gas), which is an example of the MTO (Methanol To Olefins) process. (Olefin is the older name for the homologous series, alkenes). Methanol can be converted into high purity ethene and propene via dimethyl ether (Figure 3, routes 10 and 9). Methanol vapour is passed over alumina at ca 600 K. An equilibrium mixture of methanol, dimethyl ether and steam is produced, containing about 25% methanol:
Hydrogen within synthesis gas formed by gasification of biomass, can be converted into (Figure 2, route 6), by addition of nitrogen from air, and is used mainly to make .
Alkylamines (C1-C6) Chemical Economics Handbook Published December 2017 Amines are a versatile class of compounds used in organic synthesis....
Methanol is a common industrial chemical that has been usedas an alternative blended liquid transportation fuel and under considerationfor wider use. In the USA its application profile in 1998 was MTBE, 36 percent;formaldehyde, 24 percent; acetic acid, 10 percent; solvents, 6 percent;chloromethanes, 4 percent; methyl methacrylate, 3 percent; miscellaneous,including methylamines, glycol methyl ethers, dimethyl terephthalate,antifreeze and fuels, 17 percent. In many countries, notably in Asia, methanolis almost exclusively used to produce the intermediate chemical formaldehyde asinput to urea formaldehyde composite wood adhesive.
Methanol is a common industrial chemical that has been used as an alternative blended liquid transportation fuel and under consideration for wider use. In the USA its application profile in 1998 was MTBE, 36 percent; formaldehyde, 24 percent; acetic acid, 10 percent; solvents, 6 percent; chloromethanes, 4 percent; methyl methacrylate, 3 percent; miscellaneous, including methylamines, glycol methyl ethers, dimethyl terephthalate, antifreeze and fuels, 17 percent. In many countries, notably in Asia, methanol is almost exclusively used to produce the intermediate chemical formaldehyde as input to urea formaldehyde composite wood adhesive.
Oxo Chemicals Chemical Economics Handbook Published August 2015 The oxo process or hydroformylation of olefins with synthesis gas is the principal...