Water, stearic acid, cetyl alcohol, glycerol monostearate, mineral oil, triethanolamine, carbomer, aloe vera, tocopheryl acetate (vitamin e) , propylene glycol, diazolidinyl urea, iodopropynyl, butylcarbamate, DMDM hydantoin, fragrance, Yellow 5 (CI 1940) Blue 1 (CI 42090)
Sunset Yellow FCF, Orange Yellow S, FD&C Yellow 6,
Carminic acid, Carmine, Natural Red 4,
Brilliant Blue FCF,
plain . It is manufactured by heating carbohydrates with or without acids or alkalis
caustic . It is produced like E150a, but in the presence of sulfite compounds
ammonia . It is produced like E150a, but in the presence of ammonium compounds
sulfite ammonia . It is produced like E150a, but with both sulfite and ammonium compounds
. may be used as a stabilizer. See .
, bixin, norbixin
Capsanthin, capsorubin, Paprika extract. Extracted from the fruit pod and seeds of the red pepper
Beetroot Red, Betanin. Natural extract from beetroot
, Vitamin C
Polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monolaurate, Polysorbate 20
Polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monooleate,
Polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monopalmitate, Polysorbate 40
Polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monostearate,
Polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan tristearate, Polysorbate 65
Sodium, potassium and calcium salts of
Magnesium salts of
Mono- and diglycerides of , Glyceryl monostearate, Glyceryl distearate
Acetic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of
Lactic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of
Citric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of
Tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of
Mono- and diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of
Mixed acetic and tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of
Polyglycerol esters of
Propane-1, 2-diol esters of fatty acids, propylene glycol esters of
Lactylated fatty acid esters of and propane-1
Thermally oxidized soya bean oil interacted with mono- and diglycerides of
, calcium stearate
and its sodium salt
fur from the sable marten, a small carnivorous mammal
derived from the leaves of wintergreen, meadowsweet, willow bark or other plants. It can also be produced synthetically by heating with carbon dioxide
cloth made from the fiber produced by the larvae ('silk worm') of certain bombycine moths, the harvesting of which entails the destruction of the insect the sodium salt of alginic acid extracted from brown seaweed.
white solid used as an acidity regulator in foods. It is mainly used in the manufacturing of baking powder. Produced by combining and .
the sodium salt of . Produced by reacting with . Used as a food preservative. bicarbonate of Soda
Soda Ash. A sodium salt of .
chemical term for table salt. It can be mined (rock salt), obtained by adding water to salt deposits (evaporated salt) or obtained from oceans and salt lakes (sea salt).
Caustic Soda. A water-soluble solid usually produced by processing salt water. It used to be obtained from the ashes of a certain kind of seaweed.
the sodium salt of
the sodium salt of sulfated ethoxylated
prepared by sulfation of followed by neutralization with
an inorganic salt. White to yellowish powder with sulfur dioxide odor. Used as a disinfectant, antioxidant and preservative.
synthetic material generally prepared by the partial or total neutralization of using or .
prepared from and
the sodium salt of .
white powder obtained from fruit or produced synthetically
derived from raw materials of vegetable origin. Commercially known as Span 20
manufactured by reacting with to yield a mixture of esters. Commercially known as Span 60
derived from animal or vegetable sources. Commercially know as Span 80. The vegetable derived version is know as Span 80V
derived from raw materials of vegetable origin. Commercially know as Span 40
derived from animal or vegetable sources. Commercially known as Span 65. The vegetable derived version is know as Span 65V
derived from animal or vegetable sources. Commercially know as Span 85. The vegetable derived version is known as Span 85V
a sugar alcohol derived from fruit like cherries, plums, pears, apples or from corn, seaweed and algae
also known as "starter culture", "sourdough culture" or "sour culture". It is usually made with a mixture of flour and water inhabited by yeast and lactobacteria containing no animal ingredients. Sometimes yogurt is used in the starter. Bread made from a sourdough culture is called sourdough bread
oil found in the head of the various species of whales
fatty substance derived as a wax from the head of the sperm whale
aquatic animal or colony of animals of a 'low order', characterized by a tough elastic skeleton of interlaced fibers
found in the liver of the shark (and rats)
a complex carbohydrate found in seeds, fruits, tubers, roots and stem pith of plants such as corn, potatoes, wheat, beans and rice.
salt of stearic acid
fat from cows, pigs, sheep, dogs or cats. Can be obtained from vegetable sources
general name for the three glycerids (monostearin, distearin, tristearin). Formed by the combination of and , chiefly applied to tristearin, which is the main constituent of tallow or suet
prepared from sperm whale oil or vegetable sources
made from and
obtained by reacting with an edible fat or oil with or without the presence of a solvent
known under the brand name Splenda. It's produced from . Some but not all Splenda producers have confirmed that they don't use bone char as a filter. Sucralose is tested on animals.
kid-, pig- or calf-skin tanned
solid fat prepared from the kidneys of cattle and sheep
a sweet crystallizable material that consists wholly or essentially of . It is obtained commercially from sugarcane or sugar beet. Beet sugar is vegan, but some cane sugars are processed through .
a toxic colorless gas formed primarily by the combustion of sulfur-containing material, like fossil fuels.
ingredient is produced by chemical synthesis, which means that parts or elements are combined to form a whole. Unlike products, synthetic products are made from ingredients that do not occur (independently) in nature.
derived from hair, both human and animal, or feathers. Can be synthetically produced from .
a compound produced from .
acid produced by the fermentation of whey, cornstarch, potatoes or molasses.
enzyme derived from fungus of yeast. It prevents lactose from being broken down into glucose and galactose. It is used in the dairy industry for people who are lactose intolerant.
milk sugar. A type of sugar only found in milk.
fat extracted from sheep's wool.
fat surrounding the stomach and kidneys of the pig, sheep and cattle.
the fresh berries and leaf extract of the laurel tree.
constituent of vegetable fats, especially coconut oil and oil. Derivatives are used as a base in the manufacture of soaps, detergents and .
compound usually produced from coconut oil (which is naturally high in lauric acid) or from a petroleum based version of lauric acid
tanned hide (mostly from cattle but also sheep, pigs and goats etc)
fatty substance found in nerve tissues, egg yolk, blood and other tissues. Mainly obtained commercially from soya bean, peanut and corn
porous rock formed over thousands of years from the compression of shells and bones of marine animals.
enzyme from the stomachs, tongue glands of calves, kids and lambs. Can also be from derived from plants, fungus or yeast. It breaks down fat to glycerol and fatty acids.
substance of deep yellow color found in egg yolk. Obtained commercially from marigold.
protein obtained by boiling animal skin, connective tissue or bones, usually from cows or pigs. It's an edible form of . It is used as a gelling agent, stabilizer or thickener in cooking. It is also used in glues, photographic films, matches, sandpaper, certain soft drinks, playing cards, crepe paper and more
also known as gluconolactone or GDL. A fine, white, acidic powder. It is usually produced by the oxidation of a by microorganisms
a simple sugar usually produced by hydrolysis of a starch with mineral acids. Starches used include corn, rice, wheat, potato and arrowroot. It can also be produced synthetically or by adding crystallized to a mixture of alcohol and acid. In some countries (like the U.S.) glucose is run through filters
enzyme derived from the bacteria Streptomyces rubiginosus. It is used in the production of fructose syrups (including high fructose corn syrup) by changing glucose into fructose
a dietary supplement used to aid in the relief of joint problems. Usually extracted from the tissues of shellfish. It can also be derived from corn or produced synthetically
a clear, colorless liquid which is a by-product of the soap-making process obtained by adding alkalies (solutions with a pH greater than 7) to fats and fixed oils. It may be derived from animal fats, synthesized from propylene or from fermentation of sugars. Vegetable glycerin is derived from vegetable fats.
an amino acid, obtainable by hydrolysis of proteins
obtained from scales of fish Gum made from ground guar seeds.
a natural gum produced by the acacia tree to heal its bark if damaged. It is used in cosmetics, candy, syrups and as glue.
Analysis of reaction mixture: For analysis of reaction mixture specific amount of sample was withdrawn. Reaction products were analyzed by reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in an Agilent 1200 Chromatography System (CA, USA) equipped with a quaternary solvent delivery module and an Agilent UV detector at wavelength of 208 nm. Reaction mixture was appropriately diluted using HPLC grade tertiary butyl alcohol and 10ml sample was automatically injected on Agilent Zorbax XDB ODS 5 μM, 4.6 × 150 mm column. Separation was obtained by isocratic elution using methanol/water (90:10) as solvent system. The flow rate was maintained at 1ml/min and total run time was kept at 30 min. Calibration curves were plotted for reference standard of stearic acid and sn-1(3) glyceryl monostearate using the above method and linear equations were calculated for determination of percent conversion of stearic acid and monoacylglycerol content in final reaction mixture respectively. The degree of conversion was expressed as % reduction of stearic acid in the final reaction mixture as determined by HPLC analysis.
Esterification reaction in batch scale: Synthesis of glyceryl monostearate was performed as batch process in 100 ml conical flask with stoppered cap, thermo stated to the desired operating temperature and reaction blend was mixed using orbital shaker. Reaction mixture contained appropriate amount of stearic acid, glycerol and organic solvent. Novozym 435 was added to the reaction mixture to start the esterification reaction. Samples were withdrawn from reaction mixture at pre specified time intervals and analyzed using method developed on reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) equipped with a UV detector as explained in Section 5.2.2. Percentage conversion was determined on the basis of reduction of stearic acid in the final reaction mixture as shown in Equation 1 using standard calibration curve of stearic acid. Monoacylglycerol content was determined using response factor obtained from calibration curve of standard glyceryl monostearate. Effect of molecular sieves on esterification rate was also studied, wherein; particular amount of molecular sieves (3A°) was added for removal of water generated during esterification reaction. In the present work, effect of molar ratio of stearic acid and glycerol, enzyme load, type of organic solvent and reaction time on the esterification efficiency of stearic acid and glycerol has been systematically studied. Structure of formed ester was confirmed using FT-IR, mass spectrometry and H1-NMR.
Glycerol and stearic acid have opposite polarities and are not miscible with each other. For the formation of monophasic reaction mixture it is necessary to introduce organic solvents to solubilize both stearic acid and glycerol. Use of organic solvents enables good mixing of substrates and plays a critical role in improving mass transfer in the reaction medium by reducing viscosity of the reaction medium. Organic solvents also affect the reaction kinetics by causing conformational changes in enzyme molecules thereby influencing activity and selectivity of enzyme. The effects differ depending on the kind of organic solvents and enzymes used. Conformational changes in enzymes have been reported to result in alteration of substrate specificity and affinity of substrates for enzymes [18,21,23]. In this work, several organic solvents with different log P values were screened for their effect on synthesis of glyceryl monostearate. Table 2 and Figure 5 illustrate the details of log P values and effect of different organic solvents such as tetrahydrofuran, tertiary butyl alcohol, acetone, hexane, heptane and isooctane on stearic acid conversion. In our current work we observed that tertiary butyl alcohol was the most efficient solvent for esterification of stearic acid and glycerol showing conversion of 82.71%. The second best esterification was observed in the case of acetone with conversion being ~69%. Less esterification efficiency was observed in the case of hexane, heptane and isooctane which could be due to hydrophobicity (high log Pvalue) of these solvents preventing proper contact of hydrophilic glycerol with lipophilic stearic acid in the reaction medium leading to reduced conversions. Janssen et al.  has extensively studied effect of organic solvents with varying log P values and have suggested that tertiary alcohols are better suited for monoester synthesis by esterification route.
All chemicals and solvents used were of analytical or chromatographic grade and purchased from SD Fine Chemicals (Mumbai, India). Novozym 435 was obtained as gift from Novo Nordisk Ltd. (Bagsvaerd, Denmark). Candida antarctica B soluble lipase was purchased from DK Enzymes & Chemicals (India). Indion PA 500 resin was purchased from Ion Exchange, (India). Molecular sieves of 3Å were purchased from Hi-Media Laboratories (India). Reference standards of sn-1(3) glyceryl monostearate, glyceryl 1,3-distearate and stearic acid (>99.0%) were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich (USA). Stearic acid and glycerol used as substrates for esterification reaction were gifted by Godrej Industries (India). All chemicals and solvents were used without any modification/purification.