38. Zhang C, Fu YY, Zhang X. . BSA-directed synthesis of CuS nanoparticles as a biocompatible photothermal agent for tumor ablation . 2015;44:13112-8
46. Zhang W, Ye J, Zhang Y. . One-step facile synthesis of fluorescent gold nanoclusters for rapid bio-imaging of cancer cells and small animals. 2015;5:63821-6
224. Sasidharan S, Bahadur D, Srivastava R. Protein-Poly(amino acid) Nanocore-Shell Mediated Synthesis of Branched Gold Nanostructures for Computed Tomographic Imaging and Photothermal Therapy of Cancer. 2016;8:15889-903
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a) Scheme of synthesizing albumin-based nanoparticles with different strategies and the biomedical applications of the prepared nanoparticles. Parts of the figure adapted with permissions from [, ].
On the basis of the high biocompatibility and long blood circulation half-life of albumin, many studies have been devoted to the development of albumin-stabilized nanoparticles for biomedical applications [-]. Albumin could be introduced during nanoparticle synthesis or stabilizer replacement [-].
Albumin-templated Ag nanocluster was discovered with strong singlet oxygen (1O2) generation capacity under light irradiation (≈1.26, Rose Bengal as a standard) and could be applied in photodynamic therapy (PDT) . The prepared Ag nanocluster exhibited higher 1O2 generation capacity than that of gold nanocluster and commonly available photosensitizers. The prepared Ag nanocluster was also highly biocompatible and fluorescent and could be used to track the cell uptake of the nanoparticle and kill cancer cells through generating 1O2.
Hypoxia is regarded as a key feature of the tumor microenvironment that significantly influences tumor treatment response. An albumin-stabilized gold nanoparticle was synthesized for tumor hypoxia imaging (Figure a) . The nanoparticle was modified with hypoxia-sensitive nitroimidazole moiety, which was converted into amine groups in the presence of nitroreductase. Conversion from the nitro group of nitroimidazole to the amino group helped increase the zeta potential of the prepared nanoparticle, which thereby improved cell internalization for accumulation at the tumor . The designed nanoparticle displayed enhanced X-CT imaging for tumor hypoxia
Albumin-templated NIR fluorescent gold nanoclusters were also conjugated with folic acid (FA) and cisplatin prodrug as an integrated theranostic nanoplatform for targeted NIR fluorescence imaging and chemotherapy on 4T1 breast cancer . FA modification significantly improved the cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of the prepared nanoparticles in the 4T1 breast cancer cells. NIR fluorescence could be used for non-invasive optical bioimaging. In addition, the prepared nanoparticle showed significant inhibition on the growth and lung metastasis of orthotopic 4T1 breast tumors.
115. Ge S, Shi X, Sun K, Li C, Baker JR, Banaszak Holl MM andOrr BG. A facile hydrothermal synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles with tunable magnetic properties. 2009;13:13593-9
a) Scheme of synthesizing highly red fluorescent gold nanoclusters. b) Scheme of synthesizing near-infrared fluorescent Ag2S quantum dots with the presence of albumin as the template and its conjugation with anti-VEGF mAb. c) Scheme of synthesizing Gd:CuS@BSA hybrid theranostic agents. Figures (a) and (c) adapted with permissions from [, ].
60. Khandelia R, Bhandari S, Pan UN. . Gold Nanocluster Embedded Albumin Nanoparticles for Two-Photon Imaging of Cancer Cells Accompanying Drug Delivery. 2015;11:4075-81