described for the first time the synthesis of mixed acidtriglycerides ().
Description of the specific presence of fatty acids in the depot fats ofruminants in contrast to their absence in non-ruminants ().
The "phospholipid effect" discovered in 1953 is now attributed to aphosphoinositide in connection with phosphatidic acid metabolism(phosphatidylinositol cycle) ().
Barber JM et al.
They were correctly identified in 1961.
Discovery that mevalonic acid is incorporated quantitatively into cholesterol incell-free systems with loss of carbon dioxide ().
The chemical structure of the cord factor of was established as trehalose dimycolate ().
Discovery of the first polyisoprenoid alcohol, solanesol, in tobacco leaves
of the antioxidant properties of tocopherols ().
First synthesis of linoleic acid ()
Kurz H used ethyl alcohol to derivatize fatty acids (FA ethyl esters) beforetheir analysis ().
First data on cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism after using an isotope of hydrogen(deuterium) in mice and chicks ().
Using deuterated acetate, Sonderhoff R et al. have shown that it serves asa precursor for sterols including ergosterol in yeast ().
Paul Karrer received the
discovered the essentiality of thelong-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (linoleic and linolenic acids) ().
Anderson RJ reported the presence of inositol in lipids of tubercle bacilli ().
First demonstration of the biosynthesis of vitamin A from
described the first synthesis of linoleic acid () and linolenic acid ().
Reiser R demonstrated that the high levels of saturated fatty acids in ruminantanimal fat are due to the hydrogenation of the dietary unsaturated fatty acidsin the rumen ().
Asselineau J elucidated the structure of mycolic acids (
Studies were performed to examine synthesis, tissue localization, and metabolism of mevalonic acid in normal rats. Circulating mevalonate was found to have a rapid turnover phase of 5 min and a slower phase of 40-50 min. Under in vitro conditions the synthesis of mevalonate is carried out most actively by the liver and only to a minor extent by the other tissues studied. The most unexpected finding of this study was that both in vivo and in vitro the kidneys rather than the liver are the primary site of the metabolism of circulating mevalonate. Whereas mevalonate in the liver is rapidly transformed to cholesterol, the major products of mevalonate metabolism in the renal tissues during the same time period are squalene and lanosterol. Exogenous in contrast to circulating mevalonate is metabolized primarily in the intestine.
1961, 83, 3080) made the first total synthesis of arachidonic acid.
Imai J demonstrated that the oxidative desaturation of a saturated fatty acid (palmitic acid) is depressed in diabetic rats ().
Kennedy EP described the general pathways of the glycerolipid biosynthesis in animal cells ().
Bremer J et al.
The first component protein of an enzyme of fatty acid biosynthesis, fatty acidsynthase, was purified ().
Polyprenol diphosphates were shown to be involved in the biosynthesis ofpolysaccharides in () and in the biosynthesis of peptidoglycans in ().
The structure of juvenile hormone of insects was elucidated by Roller H ().
demonstrated that nearly allphosphatidylserine and a minimum of 70% of phosphatidylethanolamine is on theinside surface of the human erythrocyte membrane, thus "presenting a strongevidence for an asymmetric arrangement of phospholipids" ().
First demonstration of an inhibition of sterol biosynthesis (HMG-CoA reductaseactivity) by oxygenated derivatives of cholesterol in cultured mammalian cells ().
For the first time, the existence of polyunsaturated fatty acids was reported inmarine bacteria ().
described the mechanism of the regulation of lipogenesis by fatty acids in measuring the rate of synthesis of fatty acid synthase in mouse liver ().
Holman RT et al.
first demonstrates the reliability of a new stratigraphictechnique for climatic assessment utilizing the relative abundance of two C37alkenones in marine sediments ().
First demonstration of a specific receptor-mediated release of 20:4n-6 and22:6n-3 from plasmalogen phospholipids ().
Evidence is given that phosphatidic acid is a lipid second messenger with growthfactor-like properties, stimulating the breakdown of phosphoinositides andcalcium release ().
Demonstration of an inhibition of protein kinase C by sphingosine whichsuggested an important role for that lipid in the regulation of the signaltransduction pathways (, ).
First clear demonstration of a formation of diacylglycerol as second messengerfrom phosphatidylcholine in hormone-stimulated cells ().
Abscisic acid, one of the most important phytohormones, has been shown to bepresent in the central nervous system of pigs and rats ().
After the discovery of 20:5n-3 in a marine bacterium (Johns RB et al., 1977), a study on 11 piezophilic bacteria (from 1200 to 10 476 m of sea depth) revealed they produced EPA (20:5n-3) and DHA (22:6n-3) in increasing proportion oftotal fatty acids when pressure increased ().
of fatty acid ethyl ester synthesis in liver of mice treated with ethanol inhalation ().
First literature use of the term biodiesel in a Chinese paper by Wang R et al.
Among activators, a variety of endogenously present lipids were described ().
An antiphosphatidylcholine antibody was described in the serum of a patient diagnosed with hemolytic anemia ().
Phosphatidylserine was shown to be recognized by specific antibodies in patients with lupus anticoagulant ().
The "Nod factors" produced in legumes by as a class of signalling molecules was identified as lipo-chitooligosaccharides ().
First demonstration of phosphatidylinositol anchor on the lipopolysaccharides of a prokaryotic species, ( ).
Demonstration of the induction of the synthesis of proteinase inhibitors by methyl jasmonate in a wounded plant but also in nearby plants through the atmosphere ().
First clear demonstration that fatty acids are as unfavorable as saturated fatty acids in raising LDL cholesterol and lowering HDL cholesterol levels ().