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(1974) Metabolism of pentachlorophenol.

If the phenol is first converted into sodium phenoxide by adding sodium hydroxide solution, the reaction is faster. Phenyl ethanoate is again formed, but this time the other product is sodium ethanoate rather than ethanoic acid.

So why are the pKa's of phenol and its derivativesso low - we see a difference of 7 orders of magnitude! Can explainon the basis of resonance structures (you should come up withany additional contributing resonance structure(s)) of the ion:

Phenolate, a salt of phenol.POTASH- Potassium carbonate, obtained from wood ashes.
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(1978) Metabolism of pentachlorophenol in vivo and in vitro.

(1980) Chlorinated phenols: occurrence, toxicity, metabolism, and environmental impact.
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ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH CRITERIA FOR PENTACHLOROPHENOL A WHO Task Group on Environmental Health Criteria for Pentachlorophenol met at the Fraunhofer Institute for Toxicology and Aerosol Research, Hanover, Federal Republic of Germany from 20 to 24 October, 1986.

Identity, Physical and Chemical Properties, Analytical Methods Pure pentachlorophenol (PCP) consists of light tan to white, needlelike crystals and is relatively volatile.

(1966) Acute fatal poisoning with sodium pentachlorophenol.

It's an astringent, alkali.ANHYDROUS- To lose all water, including crystallizing waters.ANHYDRITE- A mineral, calcium sulfate.ANILINE- An oily liquid first obtained from indigo, used as a basis for aniline dyes, today coal-tar is the base.ATOM- The smallest unit constituent of an molecule containing protons, neutrons and electrons, the number and arrangement of which determine the element.AZO- Unsulfonated dyestuffs, diazonium salt with a phenol, Hansa Yellow.CADMIUM- A metallic element that looks like tin.

(1966) A method for the determination of pentachlorophenol in human urine in picogram quantities.
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He suggested this on the basis that paramethoxytetrachlorophenol, a metabolite of a fungus, could interfere with the GC-EC analysis of PCP, because of its similar molecular size, shape, and retention time.

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(1972) Methylation of penta- chlorophenol by Trichoderma virgatum.

(1971) Metabolism of 14C- pentachlorophenol in the mouse.

For example, Dietz & Traud (1978b) distilled the extraction solvent diethyl ether to remove the antioxidant BHT (2,6-di- tert-butyl-4-methyl-phenol).

(1978) Metabolism of pentachlorophenol in fishes.

rat) solution methylated phenols in acid (1979) alumina column; GC analysis; GC-MS confirmationPlasma Benzene extraction Derivatization with acetic EC 50 µg/litre 91- Eben et(human) anhydride; GC analysis 102% al.

(1979) Metabolism of pentachlorophenol in fish.

Chlorophenols may be combined with other active components such as methylene bisthiocyanate and copper naphthenate in the formulation of PCP pesticides (von Rümker et al., 1974).

(1975a) Studies on the meta- bolism of chlorophenols in fish.

The major metabolic processes degrading PCP or its sodium salt are as follows (Suzuki, 1977; Kaufman, 1978; Reiner at al., 1978; Murthy et al., 1979; Rott et al., 1979): (a) methylation to yield the methylether of PCP, pentachloroanisole; (b) acylation of the hydroxyl group resulting in pentachlorophenol acetate; (c) dechlorination to tetrachlorophenols; and (d) hydroxylation to tetrachlorodihydroxybenzenes.

(1975b) Studies on the meta- bolism of chlorophenols in fish.

Ferrous (iron) oxides are exceptions, these are called "loose linkages".SICCATIVE- Salts of metal oxides soluble in oil, they speed the absorption of oxygen by oils and dry them faster, 2% maximum is recommended.SOAP- Made by treating a fat with an alkali, any metallic salt of an acid contained in fat.SODIUM- A soft metallic element that oxidizes rapidly in moist air, occurring only in combined states.PHENOL- Carbolic acid, a hydroxyl derivative of benzene, used in organic synthesis.

(1978) Microbial metabolism of pentachlorophenol.

Metabolites formed by the microbial transformation of PCPa---------------------------------------------------------------------------Substance Reference---------------------------------------------------------------------------(1) pentachlorophenol acetate Rott et al.

(1979) Microbial decompo- sition of sodium pentachlorophenolate.

Impurities in Pentachlorophenol Technical PCP has been shown to contain a large number of impurities, depending on the manufacturing method (section 3.2.1).

(1977) Metabolism of pentachlorophenol by a soil microbe.

Peptone, glucose, and the sodium salt of 4-chlorophenol suppressed the degradation rate while yeast extracts stimulated PCP decomposition; the basis for these various effects is not clear.

Studies on the Synthesis of 4-Phenoxy Phenol-- …

Potential sources of occupational exposure to PCP or its sodium salta--------------------------------------------------------Manufacture and shipping of industrial chlorophenolsSawmillsWood-treatment plantsCarpentry and other timber and wood-workingTermite controlAgricultural pesticide applicationGreenhousesIndustrial cooling towers and evaporative condensersTreatment and handling of woolTreatment and handling of burlap, canvas, rope, leatherPaper manufacturePetroleum and other drillingPaint and adhesive manufacture and useTelephone and electrical line workDyeing and cleaning of garments--------------------------------------------------------a Adapted from: Crosby et al.

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