salt or ester of
fatty acid that occurs in palm oil and most other fats and oils
can come from animal, plant or synthetic sources
enzyme derived from the unripe fruit of the papaya plant. It is used for clearing beverages, added to farina to reduce cooking time and used medically to prevent adhesions
the chemical product of the action of or on . To make hard cheese, paracasein is combined with soluble calcium salts to form calcium paracaseinate (cheese curd)
waxy substance obtained from distillates of wood, coal, petroleum, or shale oil
skin of the sheep or goat, dressed and prepared for writing etc
concretion of layers of pain-dulling nacre formed around a foreign particle within the shell of various bivalve molluscs, principally the oyster
a substance that is found in the primary cell walls and the non-woody parts of plants. Pectin is used as a gelling agent, thickener and stabilizer in food. Commercially, pectin is obtained mostly from dried citrus peels and apples as a by-product of juice production.
PEG is the abbreviation of polyethylene glycol or polyoxyethylene glycol. They are polymeric forms of ethylene oxide. They can be either synthetic or derived from animal or vegetable sources.
enzyme usually derived from the stomach of grown calves or sometimes pigs.
an oily, flammable liquid composed of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons occurring in many places in the upper strata of the earth. A fossil fuel believed to have originated from both plant and animal sources millions of years ago.
an inorganic acid
organ by which the fetus is attached to the umbilical cord
a product of petroleum gas or dehydration of alcohol
produced from and esters
a condensate of with
a condensate of and
a water-soluble polymer from synthetic origin. Used in products like pharmaceutical tablets, shampoo, toothpaste, batteries, paint and adhesives.
a mixture of and ethylene oxide
a mixture of stearate and ethylene oxide produced by a reaction of ethylene oxide with
occurs naturally as the mineral sylvite and is found combined in many minerals and in brines and ocean water.
obtained commercially from the electrolysis of solution
the potassium salt of
sorbic acid potassium salt. Manufactured by neutralisation of with .
bee glue. Used by bees to stop up crevices and fix combs to the hive
flammable gas obtained by cracking .
1,2-propylene glycol; propane-1,2-diol. Manufactured by treating propylene with chlorinated water and treating it with solution or by heating with and distilling the mixture.
a flammable liquid, derived from
fur from the sable marten, a small carnivorous mammal
derived from the leaves of wintergreen, meadowsweet, willow bark or other plants. It can also be produced synthetically by heating with carbon dioxide
cloth made from the fiber produced by the larvae ('silk worm') of certain bombycine moths, the harvesting of which entails the destruction of the insect the sodium salt of alginic acid extracted from brown seaweed.
white solid used as an acidity regulator in foods. It is mainly used in the manufacturing of baking powder. Produced by combining and .
the sodium salt of . Produced by reacting with . Used as a food preservative. bicarbonate of Soda
Soda Ash. A sodium salt of .
chemical term for table salt. It can be mined (rock salt), obtained by adding water to salt deposits (evaporated salt) or obtained from oceans and salt lakes (sea salt).
Caustic Soda. A water-soluble solid usually produced by processing salt water. It used to be obtained from the ashes of a certain kind of seaweed.
the sodium salt of
the sodium salt of sulfated ethoxylated
prepared by sulfation of followed by neutralization with
an inorganic salt. White to yellowish powder with sulfur dioxide odor. Used as a disinfectant, antioxidant and preservative.
synthetic material generally prepared by the partial or total neutralization of using or .
prepared from and
the sodium salt of .
white powder obtained from fruit or produced synthetically
derived from raw materials of vegetable origin. Commercially known as Span 20
manufactured by reacting with to yield a mixture of esters. Commercially known as Span 60
derived from animal or vegetable sources. Commercially know as Span 80. The vegetable derived version is know as Span 80V
derived from raw materials of vegetable origin. Commercially know as Span 40
derived from animal or vegetable sources. Commercially known as Span 65. The vegetable derived version is know as Span 65V
derived from animal or vegetable sources. Commercially know as Span 85. The vegetable derived version is known as Span 85V
a sugar alcohol derived from fruit like cherries, plums, pears, apples or from corn, seaweed and algae
also known as "starter culture", "sourdough culture" or "sour culture". It is usually made with a mixture of flour and water inhabited by yeast and lactobacteria containing no animal ingredients. Sometimes yogurt is used in the starter. Bread made from a sourdough culture is called sourdough bread
oil found in the head of the various species of whales
fatty substance derived as a wax from the head of the sperm whale
aquatic animal or colony of animals of a 'low order', characterized by a tough elastic skeleton of interlaced fibers
found in the liver of the shark (and rats)
a complex carbohydrate found in seeds, fruits, tubers, roots and stem pith of plants such as corn, potatoes, wheat, beans and rice.
salt of stearic acid
fat from cows, pigs, sheep, dogs or cats. Can be obtained from vegetable sources
general name for the three glycerids (monostearin, distearin, tristearin). Formed by the combination of and , chiefly applied to tristearin, which is the main constituent of tallow or suet
prepared from sperm whale oil or vegetable sources
made from and
obtained by reacting with an edible fat or oil with or without the presence of a solvent
known under the brand name Splenda. It's produced from . Some but not all Splenda producers have confirmed that they don't use bone char as a filter. Sucralose is tested on animals.
kid-, pig- or calf-skin tanned
solid fat prepared from the kidneys of cattle and sheep
a sweet crystallizable material that consists wholly or essentially of . It is obtained commercially from sugarcane or sugar beet. Beet sugar is vegan, but some cane sugars are processed through .
a toxic colorless gas formed primarily by the combustion of sulfur-containing material, like fossil fuels.
ingredient is produced by chemical synthesis, which means that parts or elements are combined to form a whole. Unlike products, synthetic products are made from ingredients that do not occur (independently) in nature.
AB - Polyol and end-capping agent were changed systematically when charged surface modifying macromolecules (cSMMs) were synthesized and characterized. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy detected different degrees of hydrogen bonding interactions for different polyols and end-capping agents via shifting of absorption bands characteristic to the urethane group. Polyol of the lower molecular weight showed the stronger interaction and thus increased the cSMM's structural rigidity. The cSMM's rigidity increased from hydroxyl benzene sulfonate to hydroxyl propane sulfonate when poly(propylene glycol) was used as polyol. The effects of polyol and end-capping agent on the contact angle and water uptake were studied.
Mono ethylene glycol (MEG) is a kind of important fundamental chemical, mainly used in polyester synthesis. Traditional MEG production is based on petroleum resources. This study reports about a new kind of MEG technology to synthesize CO and hydrogen, developed by Pujing Chemical. Laboratorial researches were performed well by developing both carbonylation catalyst and hydrogenation catalyst. Later, a 300 t/a hydrogenation pilot plant was employed to verify the hydrogenation catalyst, and another 1000 t/a pilot plant was set up to validate the whole flow process, catalysts and purification technology in Anhui Province, China.
N2 - Polyol and end-capping agent were changed systematically when charged surface modifying macromolecules (cSMMs) were synthesized and characterized. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy detected different degrees of hydrogen bonding interactions for different polyols and end-capping agents via shifting of absorption bands characteristic to the urethane group. Polyol of the lower molecular weight showed the stronger interaction and thus increased the cSMM's structural rigidity. The cSMM's rigidity increased from hydroxyl benzene sulfonate to hydroxyl propane sulfonate when poly(propylene glycol) was used as polyol. The effects of polyol and end-capping agent on the contact angle and water uptake were studied.
There are now three being used in significant amounts.(i) of propaneIncreasingly, propane is being catalytically cracked to form propene, using the same as that used to crack gas oil:Propane is being obtained in increasingly large amounts in the US from shale gas extracted by .(ii) The Another process that has been developed is via methanol (produced from biomass via synthesis gas), the MTP (Methanol To Propene) process which is an example of the MTO (Methanol To Olefins) process.
Polyol and end-capping agent were changed systematically when charged surface modifying macromolecules (cSMMs) were synthesized and characterized. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy detected different degrees of hydrogen bonding interactions for different polyols and end-capping agents via shifting of absorption bands characteristic to the urethane group. Polyol of the lower molecular weight showed the stronger interaction and thus increased the cSMM's structural rigidity. The cSMM's rigidity increased from hydroxyl benzene sulfonate to hydroxyl propane sulfonate when poly(propylene glycol) was used as polyol. The effects of polyol and end-capping agent on the contact angle and water uptake were studied.
protein obtained by boiling animal skin, connective tissue or bones, usually from cows or pigs. It's an edible form of . It is used as a gelling agent, stabilizer or thickener in cooking. It is also used in glues, photographic films, matches, sandpaper, certain soft drinks, playing cards, crepe paper and more
also known as gluconolactone or GDL. A fine, white, acidic powder. It is usually produced by the oxidation of a by microorganisms
a simple sugar usually produced by hydrolysis of a starch with mineral acids. Starches used include corn, rice, wheat, potato and arrowroot. It can also be produced synthetically or by adding crystallized to a mixture of alcohol and acid. In some countries (like the U.S.) glucose is run through filters
enzyme derived from the bacteria Streptomyces rubiginosus. It is used in the production of fructose syrups (including high fructose corn syrup) by changing glucose into fructose
a dietary supplement used to aid in the relief of joint problems. Usually extracted from the tissues of shellfish. It can also be derived from corn or produced synthetically
a clear, colorless liquid which is a by-product of the soap-making process obtained by adding alkalies (solutions with a pH greater than 7) to fats and fixed oils. It may be derived from animal fats, synthesized from propylene or from fermentation of sugars. Vegetable glycerin is derived from vegetable fats.
an amino acid, obtainable by hydrolysis of proteins
obtained from scales of fish Gum made from ground guar seeds.
a natural gum produced by the acacia tree to heal its bark if damaged. It is used in cosmetics, candy, syrups and as glue.
derived from hair, both human and animal, or feathers. Can be synthetically produced from .
a compound produced from .
acid produced by the fermentation of whey, cornstarch, potatoes or molasses.
enzyme derived from fungus of yeast. It prevents lactose from being broken down into glucose and galactose. It is used in the dairy industry for people who are lactose intolerant.
milk sugar. A type of sugar only found in milk.
fat extracted from sheep's wool.
fat surrounding the stomach and kidneys of the pig, sheep and cattle.
the fresh berries and leaf extract of the laurel tree.
constituent of vegetable fats, especially coconut oil and oil. Derivatives are used as a base in the manufacture of soaps, detergents and .
compound usually produced from coconut oil (which is naturally high in lauric acid) or from a petroleum based version of lauric acid
tanned hide (mostly from cattle but also sheep, pigs and goats etc)
fatty substance found in nerve tissues, egg yolk, blood and other tissues. Mainly obtained commercially from soya bean, peanut and corn
porous rock formed over thousands of years from the compression of shells and bones of marine animals.
enzyme from the stomachs, tongue glands of calves, kids and lambs. Can also be from derived from plants, fungus or yeast. It breaks down fat to glycerol and fatty acids.
substance of deep yellow color found in egg yolk. Obtained commercially from marigold.
Polyethylene glycols are water-soluble at all molecular weights, but polypropylene glycols become increasingly less water-soluble at high molecular weights.