Pottery is one of the oldest human technologies and art-forms, and remains a major industry today. It is made by forming a clay body into objects of a required shape and heating them to high temperatures in a kiln to induce reactions that lead to permanent changes, including increasing their strength and hardening and setting their shape. Firing produces irreversible chemical changes in the body. As a rough guide, firing temperatures are in the range of about 1000 to 1400°C. However, the way that ceramics mature in the kiln is influenced not only by the peak temperature achieved, but also by the duration of the period of firing.
A good EEI (especially if you do Senior Art) might be to examine the hardness of the fired clay as a function of temperature; or as a function of time. If you were more adventurous you could look at different atmospheres within the kiln. One word of caution. This is a chemistry EEI and chemistry must be at its heart to distinguish it from applied technology or art. A pyrometric cone (see photo below) is a spike-shaped piece of clay used to measure temperature in a kiln when firing pottery. Cones have carefully calibrated melting points, indicated by their cone number. They are used to visually determine when a kiln has reached a desired temperature, by observing when a given cone in an observation port starts to droop. They are very attractive too.
The hardening process is due in part to the hydration of the compounds present and is probably influenced by the crystallization of these hydrates. Concrete with too little water may be dry but is not fully reacted. The properties of such a concrete would be less than that of a wet concrete. You could make up thin slabs of concrete in a shallow trough with different amounts of water and test their breaking strain. What if you were unable to get fresh water - would seawater be just as good? If you try other additives, you have to say why you think they'd work (otherwise it's not chemistry - it's just backyard trial-and-error). The possibilities are endless.
As this is a chemistry EEI should look for standard chemical methods of analysis. No doubt you've learnt about titrations, so to see how much peroxide was used up you could titrate say 10 mL aliquots of the solution against a standard KMnO4 solution in the burette. Another method may be to use a pressure sensor in the neck of the flask and hook it up to a datalogger. If you want to examine another variable, you could hold the amount of catalase constant and vary the temperature, or vary the pH (I said before that adding sulfuric acid would destroy the enzyme, but how sensitive is it to pH).
Titanium is an amazing metal. It is strong, light and corrosion resistant. It can be alloyed with many metals to increase its range of applications for industrial, aerospace, recreational, and emerging markets. Its behaviour when anodised is remarkable. Anodizing titanium produces an oxide coating which generates an array of different colours, making it appealing for art, costume and body piercing jewellery and architecture (eg Guggenheim Museum). The color is an interference effect much like that in a soap bubble. The anodised colour depends on the voltage (see chart below). You could investigate the relationship between colour and voltage using different electrolytes. The big problem is getting 100 volts. Connecting a heap of 9v batteries in series might do the trick.
As a trial, I took a 1 cm3 cube of marble and placed it in 200 mL of 7.5%w/v citric acid solution (pH 1.8) at 50°C (with stirring) and after 60 minutes it had lost 0.30 g. Why not make up a synthetic soft drink from phosphoric or citric acid. What concentration will you choose? How does the reaction rate or the extent of the reaction vary with concentration? Does temperature have much effect on the rate? Does the product - calcium citrate or calcium phosphate - impede the progress of the reaction; that is, how soluble are the products (one is 4 times as soluble as the other). How do you measure the progress of the reaction (amount of carbonate consumed or change in titratable acidity of the solution)? Oh, the possibilities are endless. And you can drink the left-over Coke and rot your teeth a bit more at the same time. A perfect EEI.
We have also learnt that photosynthesis is a vital process that occurs in order to create glucose and oxygen, by transforming carbon dioxide and water in the presence of light energy.
The temperatures used for cooking in most household kitchens are enough to destroy particularly heat-sensitive antioxidants such as vitamin C, but the antioxidants in some foods actually become more potent with heat. For example, when tomatoes are cooked for 30 minutes at 88°C, they lose almost 30% of their Vitamin C, but 35% more of the anti-oxidant lycopene becomes available. Beta-carotene levels in carrots also increase with moderate heat. The reason seems to be that the heat breaks down the plants' thick cell walls and makes the nutrient available. [See below for reference].
6CO + 6H O = C H O + 6O The factors that effect the rate of photosynthisis are the amount of light, the amount of carbon-dioxide (CO ) and the temperature that can be used by the plant....
The result of two light reactions is a total of six oxygen molecules (6 O2) released into the air as byproducts and 12 NADPH2 (24 H) carried over to the dark reaction of photosynthesis....
Alcohol is produced but its concentration is likely to be under 1%. Also, most fermented soft drinks are acidified to inhibit bacterial growth. Does this also inhibit the yeast? You could investigate the effect of pH on the rate of fermentation using lemon juice or better - citric acid. The juice of 1 lemon contains about 12 g citic acid. Be warned - you should not be drinking the ginger beer unless you have approval from your teacher (and this is unlikely). Drinking stuff made in a laboratory with no hygiene controls is DEFINITELY NOT PERMITTED.
Vitamin C is sensitive to heat and oxygen and the degree of sensitivity depends on the pH of the solution. In food it can be partly or completely destroyed by long storage or overcooking. By refrigeration the loss of Vitamin C in food can be substantially diminished. An interesting EEI would be to see how some of these factors really affect a Vitamin C solution. You could start with some fresh fruit juice (eg apple, orange) or you could simulate fruit juice by making up an appropriate solution with added citric acid, some citrates, glucose/fructose and so on. Should you measure the concentration of the ascorbic acid with time (eg daily) or just measure after a week or two weeks? What will you control? What will your independent variable be: sugar concentration, [H+], light, oxygen, temperature? If you intend to measure the concentration as a function of time elapsed you .
Introduction: "Photosynthesis is the conversion of light energy to chemical energy that is stored in glucose or other organic compounds; it occurs in plants, algae, and certain prokaryotes" (Campbell, G-16).
It is impossible to pipette an aliquot of fizzy soft drink as the bubbles keep expanding inside the pipette. You need to weigh out a sample on a balance. I measured out 20.00 grams and titrated that against 0.1M HCl using phenolphthalein. For Schweppes lemonade I had titres of about 10.6 mL. Then I flattened the lemonade and measured out 20.00 g again and had titres of 7.5 mL. This gives a citric acid concentration of 0.24% (which is about right), and a CO2 concentration of 0.03g/100mL. This seems too low however.