But what Acquisition / Learning Distinction Hypothesis predicts is that learning the grammar rules of a foreign/second language does not result in subconscious acquisition.
(2) The Natural Order Hypothesis
According to the hypothesis, the acquisition of grammatical structures proceeds in a predicted progression.
The implication of natural order is not that second or foreign language teaching materials should be arranged in accordance with this sequence but that acquisition is subconscious and free from conscious intervention.
The Input hypothesis is Krashen's attempt to explain how thelearner acquires a second language – how second language acquisition takes place. The Input hypothesis is only concerned with 'acquisition', not 'learning'.According to this hypothesis, the learner improves and progresses when he/she receives second language 'input' that is one step beyond his/her current stage of linguistic competence. For example, if a learner is at a stage 'i', then acquisition takes place when he/she is exposed to 'Comprehensible Input' that belongs to level 'i + 1'. We can then define 'Comprehensible Input' as the target language that the learner would not be able to produce but can still understand. It goes beyond the choice of words and involves presentation of context, explanation, rewording of unclear parts, the use of visual cues and meaning negotiation. The meaning successfully conveyed constitutes the learning experience.
The Monitor hypothesis explains the relationship betweenacquisition and learning and defines the influence of the latter on the former. The monitoring function is the practical result of the learned grammar. According to Krashen, the acquisition system is the utterance initiator, while the learning system performs the role of the 'monitor' or the 'editor'. The 'monitor' acts in a planning, editing and correcting function when three specific conditions are met: that is, the second language learner has sufficient time at his/her disposal, he/she focuses on form or thinks about correctness, and he/she knows the rule.
You can use the TI 83 calculator for hypothesis testing, but the calculator won’t figure out the null and alternate hypotheses; that’s up to you to read the question and input it into the calculator.
They continue by saying that since adults have many similarities with children in the language acquisition process, they cannot be forced to learn a grammatical structure before they are internally ready for it. If the theories of Krashen and Terrell and other linguists who have down played the effectiveness of grammar instruction are correct, then language teaching both in domestic and international settings would change dramatically
The pedagogical goal in a foreign/second language class should thus not only include comprehensible input but also create an atmosphere that fosters a low affective filter.
Implications on teaching grammar:
In other words, input must be achieved in low-anxiety contexts since acquirers with a low affective filter receive more input and interact with confidence.
Learned knowledge enables students to read and listen more so they acquire more.
(5) The Affective Filter Hypothesis
The learner's emotional state, according to Krashen (1985:7), is just like an adjustable filter which freely passes or hinders input necessary to acquisition.
The Natural Order hypothesis is based on research findings (Dulay & Burt, 1974; Fathman, 1975; Makino, 1980 cited in Krashen, 1987) which suggested that the acquisition of grammatical structures follows a 'natural order' which is predictable. For a given language, some grammatical structures tend to be acquired early while others late. This order seemed to be independent of the learners' age, L1 background, conditions of exposure, and although the agreement between individual acquirers was not always 100% in the studies, there were statistically significant similarities that reinforced the existence of a Natural Order of language acquisition. Krashen however points out that the implication of the natural order hypothesis is not that a language program syllabus should be based on the order found in the studies. In fact, he rejects grammatical sequencing when the goal is language acquisition.
According to Krashen there are two independent systems of second languageperformance: 'the acquired system' and 'the learned system'. The 'acquiredsystem' or 'acquisition' is the product of a subconscious processvery similar to the process children undergo when they acquire their firstlanguage. It requires meaningful interaction in the target language - naturalcommunication - in which speakers are concentrated not in the form of theirutterances, but in the communicative act.
The model consists of five hypotheses The explanations of the hypotheses below have been taken from an article titled “A Promising Approach to Second Language Acquisition” (Kiymazarslan, 2000:72-82).
(1) The Acquisition-Learning Hypothesis
Krashen (1985), in his theory of second language acquisition (SLA) suggested that adults have two different ways of developing competence in second languages: Acquisition and learning.
Krashen's widely known and well acceptedtheory of second language acquisition has had a large impact inall areas of second language research and teaching since the 1980s.